The Genetics of Axis Specification in Drosophila

Akam, M. E. 1987. The molecular basis for metameric pattern in the Drosophila embryo. Development 101: 1–22.

PubMed Link

Amiri, A. and D. Stein. 2002. Dorsoventral patterning: A direct route from ovary to embryo. Curr. Biol. 12: R532–R534.

PubMed Link

Anderson, K. V. 1989. Drosophila: The maternal contributionIn D. M. Glover and B. D. Hames (eds.) Genes and Embryos. IRL, New York. pp. 1–37.

Anderson, K. V. and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1984. Information for the dorsal-ventral pattern of the Drosophila embryo is stored as maternal mRNA. Nature311: 223–227.

PubMed Link

Andreu, M. J., and 6 others. 2012. Mirror represses pipe expression in follicle cells to initiate dorsoventral axis formation in DrosophilaDevelopment 139: 1110–1114.

PubMed Link

Arn, E. A., B. J. Cha, W. E. Theurkauf and P. M. Macdonald. 2003. Recognition of a bicoid mRNA localization signal by a protein complex containing Swallow, Nod, and RNA binding proteins. Dev. Cell 4: 41–51.

PubMed Link

Bate, M. and A. Martinez-Arias. 1993. The Development of Drosophila melanogaster. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

Bateson, W. 1894. Materials for the Study of Variation. Macmillan, London.

Baumgartner, S. and M. Noll. 1990. Networks of interaction among pair-rule genes regulating paired expression during primordial segmentation of Drosophila. Mech. Dev. 1: 1–18.

PubMed Link

Benoit, B. and 8 others. 2009. An essential role for the RNA-binding protein Smaug during the Drosophila maternal-to-zygotic transition. Development136(6): 923–932.

PubMed Link

Berleth, T. and 7 others. 1988. The role of localization of bicoid RNA in organizing the anterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 7: 1749–1756.

PubMed Link

Bhanot, P. and 8 others. 1996. A new member of the Frizzled family from Drosophila functions as a Wingless receptor. Nature 382: 225–230.

PubMed Link

Bonnefoy, E., G. A. Orsi, P. Couble and B. Loppin. 2007. The essential role of Drosophila HIRA for de novo assembly of paternal chromatin at fertilization. PLoS Genet. 3(10): 1991–2006.

PubMed Link

Bothma, J. P., H. G. Garcia, S. Ng, M. W. Perry, T. Gregor, and M. Levine. 2015. Enhancer additivity and non-additivity are determined by enhancer strength in the Drosophila embryo. Elife 4. doi: 10.7554/eLife.07956.

PubMed Link

Bradley, P. L., A. S. Haberman and D. J. Andrew. 2001. Organ formation in Drosophila: specification and morphogenesis of the salivary gland. BioEssays 23: 901–911.

PubMed Link

Brandt, A. and 12 others. 2006. Developmental control of nuclear size and shape by Kugelkern and Kurzkern. Curr. Biol. 16(6): 543–552.

PubMed Link

Brendza, R. P., L. R. Serbus, J. B. Duffy and W. M. Saxton. 2000. A function for kinesin I in the posterior transport of oskar mRNA and Staufen protein. Science 289: 2120–2122.

PubMed Link

Brody, T. B. 1995. Polytene chromosomes, endorepdupliction, and puffing. The Interactive Fly. www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/aimorph/puffing.htm.

Link

Campos-Ortega, J. A. and V. Hartenstein. 1985. The Embryonic Development of Drosophila melanogaster. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Capovilla, M., E. D. Eldon and V. Pirrotta. 1992. The Giant gene of Drosophila encodes a bZIP DNA-binding protein that regulates the expression of other segmentation gap genes. Development 114: 99–112.

PubMed Link

Casares, F. and R. S. Mann. 1998. Control of antennal versus leg development in DrosophilaNature 392: 723–726.

PubMed Link

Cha, B. J., B. S. Koppetsch and W. E. Theurkauf. 2001. In vivo analysis of Drosophila bicoid mRNA localization reveals a novel microtubule-dependent axis specification pathway. Cell 106: 35–46.

PubMed Link

Chanet, S., C. J. Miller, E. D. Vaishnav, B. Ermentrout, L. A. Davidson and A. C. Martin. 2017. Actomyosin meshwork mechanosensing enables tissue shape to orient cell force. Nat. Commun. 8: 15014.

Chasan, R., Y. Jin and K. V. Anderson. 1992. Activation of the easter zymogen is regulated by five other genes to define dorsal-ventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Development 115: 607–615.

PubMed Link

Cho, P. F., C. Gamberi, Y. A. Cho-Park, I. B. Cho-Park, P. Lasko and N. Sonenberg. 2006. Cap-dependent translational inhibition establishes two opposing morphogen gradients in Drosophila embryos. Curr. Biol. 16(20): 2035–2041.

PubMed Link

Cho, Y. S., L. M. Stevens and D. Stein. 2010. Pipe-dependent ventral processing of Easter by Snake is the defining step in Drosophilaembryo DV axis formation.Curr. Biol. 20: 1133–1137.

PubMed Link

Cho, Y. S., L. M. Stevens, K. J. Sieverman, J. Nguyen and D. Stein. 2012. A ventrally localized protease in the Drosophila egg controls embryo dorsoventral polarity. Curr. Biol. 22: 1013–1018.

PubMed Link

Cohen, S. M. and G. Jürgens. 1990. Mediation of Drosophila head development by gap-like segmentation genes. Nature 346: 482–485.

PubMed Link

De Renzis, S., O. Elemento, S. Tavazoie and E. F. Wieschaus. 2007. Unmasking activation of the zygotic genome using chromosomal deletions in the Drosophila embryo. PLoS Biol. 5(5): e117.

PubMed Link

Degelmann, A., P. A. Hardy, N. Perrimon and A. P. Mahowald. 1986. Developmental analysis of the torsolike phenotype in Drosophilaproduced by a maternal effect locus. Dev. Biol. 115: 479–489.

PubMed Link

del Valle Rodríguez, A., D. Didiano and C. Desplan. 2011. Power tools for gene expression and clonal analysis in Drosophila. Nat. Methods 9: 47–55.

Dessain, S., C. T. Gross, M. A. Kuziora and W. McGinnis. 1992. Antp-type homeodomains have distinct DNA-binding specificities that correlate with their different regulatory functions in embryos. EMBO J. 11: 991–1002.

PubMed Link

Deutsch, J. 2004. Segments and parasegments in arthropods: A functional perspective. BioEssays 26: 1117–1125.

PubMed Link

Doerflinger, H., R. Benton, I. L. Torres, M. F. Zwart and D. St. Johnston. 2006.Drosophila anterior-posterior polarity requires actin-dependent PAR-1 recruitment to the oocyte posterior. Curr. Biol. 16(11): 1090–1095.

PubMed Link

Driever, W. and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1988a. The Bicoid protein determines position in the Drosophila embryo in a concentration-dependent manner. Cell54: 95–104.

PubMed Link

Driever, W. and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1988b. A gradient of Bicoid protein in Drosophila embryos. Cell 54: 83–93.

PubMed Link

Driever, W. and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1989. The Bicoid protein is a positive regulator of hunchback transcription in the early Drosophilaembryo. Nature 337: 138–143.

PubMed Link

Driever, W., V. Siegel and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1990. Autonomous determination of anterior structures in the early Drosophila embryo by the Bicoid morphogen. Development 109: 811–820.

PubMed Link

Dubuis, J. O., G. Tkacik, E. F. Wieschaus, T. Gregor, and W. Bialek. 2013. Positional information, in bits. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110: 16301–16308.

PubMed Link

Ephrussi, A., L. K. Dickinson and R. Lehmann. 1991. Oskar organizes the germ plasm and directs localization of the posterior determinant nanos.Cell 66: 37–50.

PubMed Link

Ferrandon, D., I. Koch, E. Westhof and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1997. RNA-RNA interaction is required for the formation of specific bicoidmRNA 3′ UTR-Stufen ribonucleoprotein particles. EMBO J. 16: 1751–1758.

PubMed Link

Finkelstein, R. and N. Perrimon. 1990. The orthodenticle gene is regulated bybicoid and torso and specifies Drosophila head development. Nature 346: 485–488.

PubMed Link

Fitch, K. R. and B. T. Wakimoto. 1998. The paternal effect gene ms(3)sneaky is required for sperm activation and the initiation of embryogenesis in Drosophilamelanogaster. Dev. Biol. 197: 270–282.

PubMed Link

Foe, V. E. 1989. Mitotic domains reveal early commitment of cells in Drosophilaembryos. Development 107: 1–22.

PubMed Link

Foe, V. E. and B. M. Alberts. 1983. Studies of nuclear and cytoplasmic behavior during the five mitotic cycles that precede gastrulation in Drosophilaembryogenesis. J. Cell Sci. 61: 31–70.

PubMed Link

Foe, V. E., C. M. Field and G. M. Odell. 2000. Microtubules and mitotic cycle phase modulate spatiotemporal distributions of F-actin and myosin II in Drosophila syncytial blastoderm embryos. Development 127(9): 1767–1787.

PubMed Link

Foe, V. E., G. M. Odell and B. A. Edgar. 1993. Mitosis and morphogenesis in the Drosophila embryo: Point and counterpoint. In B. M. Bate and A. Martinez-Arias (eds.), The Development of Drosophila melanogaster. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

Forrest, K. M., I. E. Clark, R. A. Jain and E. R. Gavis. 2004. Temporal complexity within a translational control element in the nanos mRNA.Development 131: 5849–5857

PubMed Link

François, V., M. Solloway, J. W. O’Neill, J. Emery and E. Bier. 1994. Dorsal-ventral patterning of the Drosophila embryo depends on a putative negative growth factor encoded by the short gastrulation gene. Genes Dev. 8: 2602–2616.

PubMed Link

Frigerio, G., M. Burri, D. Bopp, S. Baumgartner and M. Noll. 1986. Structure of the segmentation gene paired and the Drosophila PRD gene set as part of a gene network. Cell 47: 735–746.

PubMed Link

Frischer, L. E., F. S. Hagen and R. L. Garber. 1986. An inversion that disrupts the Antennapedia gene causes abnormal structure and localization of RNAs. Cell47: 1017–1023.

PubMed Link

Fuchs, A., L. S. Cheung, E. Charbonnier, S. Y. Shvartsman and G. Pyrowolakis. 2012. Transcriptional interpretation of the EGF receptor signaling gradient. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109: 1572–1577.

PubMed Link

Fujioka, M., Y. Emi-Sarker, G. L. Yusibova, T. Goto and J. B. Jaynes. 1999. Analysis of an even-skipped rescue transgene reveals both composite and discrete neuronal and early blastoderm enhancers, and multi-stripe positioning by gap gene repressor gradients. Development 126: 2527–2538.

PubMed Link

Galindo, R. L., D. N. Edwards, S. K. H. Gillespie and S. A. Wasserman. 1995. Interaction of the pelle kinase with the membrane-associated protein tube is required for transduction of the dorsoventral signal in Drosophila embryos.Development 121: 2209–2218.

PubMed Link

Gaul, U. and H. Jäckle. 1990. Role of gap genes in early Drosophiladevelopment. Annu. Rev. Genet. 27: 239–275.

PubMed Link

Gavis, E. R. and R. Lehmann. 1992. Localization of nanos RNA controls embryonic polarity. Cell 71: 301–313.

PubMed Link

Gervais, L., S. Claret, J. Januschke, S. Roth, and A. Guichet. 2008. PIP5K-dependent production of PIP2 sustains microtubule organization to establish polarized transport in the Drosophila oocyte. Development 135: 3829–3838.

PubMed Link

Gonzalez-Reyes, A., H. Elliott and D. St. Johnson. 1995. Polarization of both major body axes in Drosophila by gurken-torpedo signalling. Nature 375: 654–658.

PubMed Link

Grossniklaus, U., K. M. Cadigan and W. J. Gehring. 1994. Three maternal coordinate systems cooperate in the patterning of the Drosophila head. Development 120: 3155–3171.

PubMed Link

Hafen, E., M. Levine and W. J. Gehring. 1984. Regulation of Antennapediatranscript distribution by the bithorax complex in DrosophilaNature 307: 287–289.

PubMed Link

Harding, K., C. Wedeen, W. McGinnis and M. Levine. 1985. Spatially regulated expression of homeotic genes in DrosophilaScience229: 1236–1242.

PubMed Link

Hashimoto, C., D. R. Kim, L. A. Weiss, J. W. Miller and D. Morisato. 2003. Spatial regulation of developmental signaling by a serpin. Dev. Cell. 5: 945–950.

PubMed Link

Hashimoto, C., K. L. Hudson and K. V. Anderson. 1988. The Toll gene of Drosophila, required for dorsal-ventral embryonic polarity, appears to encode a transmembrane protein. Cell 52: 269–279.

PubMed Link

Hashimoto, C., S. Gerttula and K. V. Anderson. 1991. Plasma membrane localization of the Toll protein in the syncytial Drosophilaembryo: Importance of transmembrane signalling for dorsal-ventral pattern formation. Development 11: 1021–1028.

PubMed Link

Hatchet, O. and A. Ephrussi. 2004. Splicing of oskar RNA in the nucleus is coupled to its cytoplasmic localization. Nature 428: 959–963.

PubMed Link

Heemskerk, J. and S. DiNardo. 1994. Drosophila hedgehog acts as a morphogen in cellular patterning. Cell 76: 449–460.

PubMed Link

Heer, N. C., P. W. Miller, S. Chanet, N. Stoop, J. Dunkel and A. C. Martin. 2017. Actomyosin-based tissue folding requires a multicellular myosin gradient. Development 144: 1876–1886.

Heifetz, Y., J. Yu and M. F. Wolfner. 2001. Ovulation triggers activation of Drosophila oocytes. Dev. Biol. 234: 416–424.

PubMed Link

Heisenberg, C.-P. 2009. Dorsal closure in Drosophila: Cells cannot get out of the tight spot. Bioessays 31: 1284–1287.

PubMed Link

Hengenius, J. B., M. Gribskov, A. E. Rundell, and D. M. Umulis. 2014. Making models match measurements: model optimization for morphogen patterning networks. Semin. Cell. Dev. Biol. 35: 109–123.

PubMed Link

Hong, C. C. and C. Hashimoto. 1995. An unusual mosaic protein with a protease domain, encoded by the nudel gene, is involved in defining embryonic dorsoventral polarity in DrosophilaCell 82: 785–794.

PubMed Link

Horner, V. L. and M. F. Wolfner. 2008. Mechanical stimulation by osmotic and hydrostatic pressure activates Drosophila oocytes in vitroin a calcium-dependent manner. Dev. Biol. 316(1): 100–109.

PubMed Link

Ingham, P. W. 2016. Drosophila segment polarity mutants and the rediscovery of the Hedgehog pathway genes. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 116: 477–488.

PubMed Link

Jäckle, H., D. Tautz, R. Schuh, E. Seifert and R. Lehmann. 1986. Cross-regulatory interactions among the gap genes of DrosophilaNature 324: 668–670.

Jaeger, J. and 11 others. 2004. Dynamic control of positional information in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature 430: 368–371.

PubMed Link

Janssens, H., S. Hou, J. Jaeger, A. R. Kim, E. Myasnikova, D. Sharp and J. Reinitz. 2006. Quantitative and predictive model of transcriptional control of the Drosophila melanogaster even-skipped gene. Nature Genet. 38(10): 1159–1165.

PubMed Link

Januschke, J., L. Gervais, L. Gillet, G. Keryer, M. Bornens and A. Guichet. 2006. The centrosome nucleus complex and microtubule organization in the Drosophila oocyte. Development 133: 129–139.

PubMed Link

Karr, T. L. and B. M. Alberts. 1986. Organization of the cytoskeleton in early Drosophila embryos. J. Cell Biol. 102: 1494–1509.

PubMed Link

Kaufman, T. C. 2017. A short history and description of Drosophila melanogaster classical genetics: Chromosome aberrations, forward genetic screens, and the nature of mutations. Genetics 206: 665–689.

Kaufman, T. C., M. A. Seeger and G. Olsen. 1990. Molecular and genetic organization of the Antennapedia gene complex of DrosophilamelanogasterAdv. Genet. 27: 309–362.

PubMed Link

Keenan, K. 1983. Lilian Vaughan Morgan (1870–1952): Her Life and Work. Interact. Comp. Biol. 23: 867–876. 

Link

Kidd, S. 1992. Characterization of the Drosophila cactus locus and analysis of interactions between cactus and dorsal proteins. Cell 71: 623–635.

PubMed Link

Klingler, M., M. Erdélyi, J. Szabad and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1988. Function of torso in determining the terminal anlagen of the Drosophila embryo. Nature 335: 275–277.

PubMed Link

Knipple, D. C., E. Seifert, U. B. Rosenberg, A. Preiss and H. Jäckle. 1985. Spatial and temporal patterns of Krüppel gene expression in early Drosophilaembryos. Nature 317: 40–44.

PubMed Link

Kohler, R. 1994. Lords of the Fly. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Kosman, D., C. M. Mizutani, D. Lemons, W. G. Cox, W. McGinnis and E. Bier. 2004. Multiplex detection of RNA expression in Drosophila embryos. Science305: 846.

PubMed Link

Laver, J. D., A. J. Marsolais, C. A. Smibert and H. D. Lipshitz. 2015. Regulation and function of maternal gene products during the maternal-to-zygotic transition in Drosophila. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 113: 43–84.

Lehmann, R. and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1986. Abdominal segmentation, pole cell formation, and embryonic polarity require the localized activity of oskar, a maternal gene in DrosophilaCell 47: 141–152.

PubMed Link

Lehmann, R. and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1987.hunchback, a gene required for segmentation of an anterior and posterior region of the Drosophila embryo.Dev. Biol. 119: 402–417.

PubMed Link

Lehmann, R. and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1991. The maternal gene nanos has a central role in posterior pattern formation of the Drosophilaembryo.Development 112: 679–691.

PubMed Link

LeMosy, E. K., Y. Q. Tan and C. Hashimoto. 2001. Activation of a protease cascade involved in patterning the Drosophila embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98: 5055–5060.

PubMed Link

Levine, M. S. and K. W. Harding. 1989. Drosophila: The zygotic contribution. InD. M. Glover and B. D. Hames (eds.), Genes and Embryos. IRL, New York, pp. 39–94.

Lewis, E. B. 1978. A gene complex controlling segmentation in Drosophila.Nature 276: 565–570.

PubMed Link

Ligoxygakis, P., S. Roth and J. M. Reichart. 2003. A serpin regulates dorsal-ventral axis formation in the Drosophila embryo. Curr. Biol. 13: 2097–2102.

PubMed Link

Lim, B., T. Fukaya, T. Heist, M. Levine. 2018. Temporal dynamics of pair-rule stripes in living Drosophila embryos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 115: 8376–8381.

Little, S. C., G. Tkačik, T. B. Kneeland, E. F. Wieschaus and T. Gregor. 2011. The formation of the Bicoid morphogen gradient requires protein movement from anteriorly localized mRNA. PLoS Biol. 9(3):e1000596.

PubMed Link

Liu, J. and J. Ma. 2011. Fates-shifted is an F-box protein that targets Bicoid for degradation and regulates developmental fate determination in Drosophilaembryos. Nat. Cell Biol. 13: 22–29.

PubMed Link

Loppin, B., R. Dubruille, and B. Horard. 2015. The intimate genetics of Drosophila fertilization. Open Biol. 5(8). pii: 150076.

PubMed Link

Lund, V. K., Y. DeLotto and R. DeLotto. 2010. Endocytosis is required for Toll signaling and shaping of the Dorsal/NF-kB morphogen gradient duringDrosophila embryogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 18028–18033.

PubMed Link

Macdonald, P. M. and C. A. Smibert. 1996. Translational regulation of maternal mRNAs. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 6: 403–407.

PubMed Link

Macdonald, P. M. and G. Struhl. 1986. A molecular gradient in early Drosophilaembryos and its role in specifying body pattern. Nature324: 537–545.

PubMed Link

Macdonald, P. M. and K. Kerr. 1998. Mutational analysis of an RNA recognition element that mediates localization of bicoid mRNA. Mol. Cell Biol. 18: 3788–3795.

PubMed Link

Maeda, R. K. and F. Karch. 2009. The Bithorax complex of Drosophila: An exceptional Hox cluster. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 88: 1–33.

PubMed Link

Mahowald, A. P., T. J. Goralski and J. H. Caulton. 1983. In vitro activation of Drosophila eggs. Dev. Biol. 98: 437–445.

PubMed Link

Markow, T. A. 2015. The secret lives of Drosophila flies. Elife 2015 Jun 4: 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.06793.

Martinez-Arias, A. and P. A. Lawrence. 1985. Parasegments and compartments in the Drosophila embryo. Nature 313: 639–642.

PubMed Link

Mavrakis, M., R. Rikhy and J. Lippincott-Schwartz. 2009. Plasma membrane polarity and compartmentalization are established before cellularization in the fly embryo. Dev. Cell 16: 93–104.

PubMed Link

Mazumdar, A. and M. Mazumdar. 2002. How one becomes many: Blastoderm cellularization in D. melanogaster. BioEssays 24: 1012–1022.

PubMed Link

Montell, D. J., H. Keshishian and A. C. Spradling. 1991. Laser ablation studies of the role of the Drosophila oocyte nucleus in pattern formation. Science 254: 290–293.

PubMed Link

Nelson, M. R, A. M. Leidal and C. A. Smibert. 2004. Drosophila CUP is an eIF4E-binding protein that functions in Smaug-mediated translational repression. EMBO J. 23: 150–159.

PubMed Link

Neuman-Silberberg, F. S. and T. Schüpbach. 1993. The Drosophila dorsoventral patterning gene gurken produces a dorsally localized RNA and encodes a TGF-a-like protein. Cell 75: 165–174.

PubMed Link

Nüsslein-Volhard, C. and E. Wieschaus. 1980. Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in DrosophilaNature 287: 795–801.

PubMed Link

Panfilio, K. A. 2008. Extraembryonic development in insects and the acrobatics of blastokinesis. Dev. Biol. 313: 471–491.

PubMed Link

Pankratz, M. J., E. Seifert, N. Gerwin, B. Billi, U. Nauber and H. Jäckle. 1990. Gradients of Krüppel and knirps gene products direct pair-rule gene stripe patterning in the posterior region of the Drosophila embryo. Cell 61: 309–317.

PubMed Link

Panzer, S., D. Weigel and S. K. Beckendorf. 1992. Organogenesis in Drosophilamelanogaster: Embryonic salivary gland determination is controlled by homeotic and dorsoventral patterning genes. Development 114: 49–57.

PubMed Link

Papatsenko, D. and M. Levine. 2011. The Drosophila gap gene network is composed of two parallel toggle switches. PLoS One6(7):e21145.

PubMed Link

Perry, M. W., A. N. Boettiger and M. Levine. 2011. Multiple enhancers ensure precision of gap gene-expression patterns in the Drosophila embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 13570–13575.

PubMed Link

Pfeiffer, B. D. and 16 others. 2008. Tools for neuroanatomy and neurogenetics in DrosophilaProc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105: 9715–9720.

PubMed Link

Pfeiffer, B. D., T. T. Ngo, K. L. Hibbard, C. Murphy, A. Jenett, J. W. Truman and G. M. Rubin. 2010. Refinement of tools for targeted gene expression in Drosophila. Genetics 186: 735–755.

Plaza, S., F. Prince, J. Jaeger, U. Kloter, S. Flister, C. Benassayag, D. Cribbs and W. J. Gehring. 2001. Molecular basis for the inhibition of Drosophila eye development by Antennapedia. EMBO J. 20: 802–811.

PubMed Link

Price, J. V., R. J. Clifford and T. Schüpbach. 1989. The maternal ventralizing locus torpedo is allelic to faint little ball, an embryonic lethal, and encodes the Drosophila EGF receptor homolog. Cell 56: 1085–1092.

PubMed Link

Ray, R. P. and T. Schüpbach. 1996. Intercellular signaling and the polarization of body axes during Drosophila oogenesis. Genes Dev.10: 1711–1723.

PubMed Link

Reach, M., R. L. Galindo, P. Towb, J. L. Allen, M. Karin and S. A. Wasserman. 1996. A gradient of Cactus protein degradation establishes dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Dev. Biol. 180: 353–364.

PubMed Link

Reichmann, V. and A. Ephrussi. 2004. Par-1 regulates bicoid mRNA localization by phosphorylating Exuperantia. Development 131: 5897–5907.

PubMed Link

Reinitz, J., E. Mjolsness and D. H. Sharp. 1995. Model for cooperative control of positional information in Drosophila by bicoid and maternal hunchback. J. Exp. Zool. 271: 47–56.

PubMed Link

Riparbelli, M. G., G. Callaini and E. D. Schejter. 2007. Microtubule-dependent organization of subcortical microfilaments in the early Drosophila embryo. Dev. Dyn. 236(3): 662–670.

PubMed Link

Rivera-Pomar, R., D. Niessling, U. Schmidt-Ott, W. J. Gehring and H. Jäckle. 1996. RNA binding and translational suppression by bicoidNature 379: 746–749.

PubMed Link

Rivera-Pomar, R., X. Lu, N. Perrimon, H. Taubert and H. Jäckle. 1995. Activation of posterior gap gene expression in the Drosophilablastoderm. Nature 376: 253–256.

PubMed Link

Roth, S., D. Stein and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 1989. A gradient of nuclear localization of the dorsal protein determines dorsoventral pattern in the Drosophila embryo. Cell 59: 1189–1202.

PubMed Link

Roth, S., F. S. Neuman-Silberberg, G. Barcelo and T. Schüpbach. 1995.cornichon and the EGF receptor signaling process are necessary for both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral pattern formation in DrosophilaCell 81: 967–978.

PubMed Link

Rouget, C. et al. 2010. Maternal mRNA deadenylation and decay by the piRNA pathway in the early Drosophila embryo. Nature 467: 1128–1132.

PubMed Link

Rushlow, C. A., K. Han, J. L. Manley and M. Levine. 1989. The graded distribution of the dorsal morphogen is initiated by selective nuclear transport in DrosophilaCell 59: 1165–1177.

PubMed Link

Sackerson, C. M. Fujioka and T. Goto. 1999. The even-skipped locus is contained in a 16-kb chromatin domain. Dev. Biol. 211: 39–52.

PubMed Link

Sánchez-Herrero, E., I. Verños, R. Marco and G. Morata. 1985. Genetic organization of Drosophila bithorax complex. Nature 313: 108–113.

PubMed Link

Sánchez, L., C. Chaouiya and D. Thieffry. 2008. Segmenting the fly embryo: Logical analysis of the role of the segment polarity cross-regulatory module. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 52(8): 1059–1075.

PubMed Link

Schejter, E. D. and E. Wieschaus. 1993. Bottleneck acts as a regulator of the microfilament network governing cellularization of the Drosophila embryo. Cell75: 373–385.

PubMed Link

Schneuwly, S., A. Kuroiwa and W. J. Gehring. 1987. Molecular analysis of the dominant homeotic Antennapedia phenotype. EMBO J. 6: 201–206.

PubMed Link

Schnorrer, F., K. Bohmann and C. Nüsslein-Volhard. 2000. The molecular motor dynein is involved in targeting swallow and bicoid RNA to the anterior pole of Drosophila oocytes. Nature Cell Biol. 2: 185–190.

PubMed Link

Schultz, J. 1935. Aspects of the relation between genes and development in DrosophilaAm. Naturalist 69: 30–54.

Schulz, C. and D. Tautz. 1995. Zygotic caudal regulation by hunchback and its role in abdominal segment formation of the Drosophilaembryo. Development121: 1023–1028.

PubMed Link

Schüpbach, T. 1987. Germ line and soma cooperate during oogenesis to establish the dorsoventral pattern of egg shell and embryo in Drosophila melanogasterCell 49: 699–707.

PubMed Link

Schüpbach, T. and E. Wieschaus. 1986. Maternal effect mutations altering the anterior-posterior pattern of the Drosophila embryo. Wilhelm Roux Arch. Dev. Biol. 195: 302–317.

Schüpbach, T., R. J. Clifford, L. J. Manseau and J. V. Price. 1991. Dorsoventral signaling processes in Drosophila oogenesis. In J. Gerhart (ed.), Cell-Cell Interactions in Early Development. Wiley-Liss, New York, pp. 163–174.

Schwalm, F. 1997. The insects. In S. F. Gilbert and A. M. Raunio (eds.), Embryology: Constructing the Organism. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA, pp. 259–278.

Sen, J., J. S. Goltz, L. Stevens and D. Stein. 1998. Spatially restricted expression of pipe in the Drosophila egg chamber defines embryonic dorsal-ventral polarity. Cell 95: 471–481.

PubMed Link

Shelton, C. A. and S. A. Wasserman. 1993. pelle encodes a protein kinase required to establish dorsoventral polarity in the Drosophilaembryo. Cell 72: 515–525.

PubMed Link

Siegfried, E., E. L. Wilder and N. Perrimon. 1994. Components of Wingless signalling in DrosophilaNature 367: 76–80.

PubMed Link

Simmonds, A. J., G. dosSantos, I. Livne-Bar and H. M. Krause. 2001. Apical localization of wingless transcripts is required for Wingless signaling. Cell 105: 197–207.

PubMed Link

Simon, J., A. Chiang and W. Bender. 1992. Ten different Polycomb genes are required for spatial control of the abdA and AbdB homeotic products. Development 114: 493–505.

PubMed Link

Simpson-Brose, M., J. Treisman and C. Desplan. 1994. Synergy between the hunchback and bicoid morphogens is required for anterior patterning in DrosophilaCell 78: 855–865.

PubMed Link

Singh, N., H. Morlock and S. D. Hanes. 2011. The Bin3 RNA methyltransferase is required for repression of caudal translation in the Drosophila embryo. Dev. Biol. 352: 104–115.

PubMed Link

Skeath, J. B. and S. B. Carroll. 1992. Regulation of proneural gene expression and cell fate during neuroblast segregation in the Drosophila embryo.Development 114: 939–946.

PubMed Link

Skeath, J. B., G. Panganiban, J. Selegue and S. B. Carroll. 1992. Gene regulation in two dimensions: The proneural achaete and scutegenes are controlled by combinations of axis-patterning genes through a common intergenic control region. Genes Dev. 6: 2606–2619.

PubMed Link

Slack, J. M. W. 1983. From Egg to Embryo: Determinative Events in Early Development. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Small, S., A. Blair and M. Levine. 1992. Regulation of even-skipped stripe 2 in the Drosophila embryo. EMBO J. 11: 4047–4057.

PubMed Link

Small, S., R. Kraut, T. Hoey, R. Warrior and M. Levine. 1991. Transcriptional regulation of a pair-rule stripe in DrosophilaGenes Dev. 5: 827–839.

PubMed Link

Spirov, A., K. Fahmy, M. Schneider, E. Frei, M. Noll and S. Baumgartner. 2009. Formation of the bicoid morphogen gradient: An mRNA gradient dictates the protein gradient. Development 136(4): 605–614.

PubMed Link

Stanojevíc, D., S. Small and M. Levine. 1991. Regulation of a segmentation stripe by overlapping activators and repressors in the Drosophila embryo.Science 254: 1385–1387.

PubMed Link

Stanojevíc, D., T. Hoey and M. Levine. 1989. Sequence-specific DNA-binding activities of the gap proteins encoded by hunchback and Krüppel in Drosophila.Nature 341: 331–335.

PubMed Link

Stephanson, E. C., Y.-C. Chao and J. D. Frackenthal. 1988. Molecular analysis of the swallow gene of Drosophila melanogasterGenes Dev. 2: 1655–1665.

PubMed Link

Steward, R. 1989. Relocalization of the dorsal protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus correlates with its function. Cell 59: 1179–1188.

PubMed Link

Struhl, G. 1981. A homeotic mutation transforming leg to antenna in Drosophila.Nature 292: 635–638.

PubMed Link

Struhl, G., K. Struhl and P. M. Macdonald. 1989. The gradient morphogen Bicoid is a concentration-dependent transcriptional activator. Cell 57: 1259–1273.

PubMed Link

Struhl, G., P. Johnson and P. Lawrence. 1992. Control of Drosophila body pattern by the Hunchback morphogen gradient. Cell 69: 237–249.

PubMed Link

Sullivan, W., P. Fogarty and W. E. Theurkauf. 1993. Mutations affecting the cytoskeletal organization of syncytial Drosophila embryos. Development 118: 1245–1254.

PubMed Link

Tautz, D. 1988. Regulation of the Drosophila segmentation gene hunchback by two maternal morphogenetic centers. Nature 332: 281–284.

PubMed Link

Tomer, R., K. Khairy, F. Amat and P. J. Keller. 2012. Quantitative high-speed imaging of entire developing embryos with simultaneous multiview light-sheet microscopy. Nat. Methods 9: 755–763.

Turner, F. R. and A. P. Mahowald. 1977. Scanning electron microscopy of Drosophila melanogaster embryogenesis. Dev. Biol. 57: 403–416.

PubMed Link

van Eeden, F. and D. St. Johnston. 1999. The polarisation of the anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes during Drosophila oogenesis. Curr. Opin. GenetDev. 9: 396–404.

PubMed Link

Wakimoto, B. T., F. R. Turner and T. C. Kaufman. 1984. Defects in embryogenesis in mutants associated with the Antennapedia gene complex of Drosophila melanogasterDev. Biol. 102: 147–172.

PubMed Link

Wang, C. and R. Lehmann. 1991. Nanos is the localized posterior determinate in Drosophila. Cell 66: 637–647.

PubMed Link

Whalen, A. M. and R. Steward. 1993. Dissociation of the dorsal-cactus complex and phosphorylation of the dorsal protein correlate with the nuclear localization of dorsal. J. Cell. Biol. 123: 523–534.

PubMed Link

Wharton, R. P. and G. Struhl. 1991. RNA regulatory elements mediate control of Drosophila body pattern by the posterior morphogen nanosCell 67: 955–967.

PubMed Link

Wieschaus, E. 2016. Positional information and cell fate determination in the early Drosophila embryo. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 117: 567–580.

PubMed Link

Wilkie, G. S. and I. Davis. 2001. Drosophila wingless and pair-rule transcripts localize apically by dynein-mediated transport of RNA particles. Cell 105: 209–219.

PubMed Link

Wilson, M. J. and P. K. Dearden. 2011. Diversity in insect axis formation: Twoorthodenticle genes and hunchback act in anterior patterning and influence dorsoventral organization in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Development 138: 3497–3507.

PubMed Link

Wu, L. H. and J. A. Lengyel. 1998. Role of caudal in hindgut specification and gastrulation suggests homology between Drosophila amnioproctodeal invagination and vertebrate blastopore. Development 125: 2433–2442.

PubMed Link

Yuan, K., C. A. Seller, A. W. Shermoen and P. H. O'Farrell. 2016. Timing the Drosophila mid-blastula transition: A cell cycle-centered view. Trends Genet. 32: 496–507.

Zhao, T., O. S. Graham, A. Raposo and D. St. Johnston. 2012. Growing microtubules push the oocyte nucleus to polarize the Drosophila dorsal-ventral axis. Science 336: 999–1003.

PubMed Link

Zhou, B., A. Bagri and S. K. Beckendorf. 2001. Salivary gland determination in Drosophila: A salivary-specific forkhead enhancer integrates spatial pattern and allows forkhead autoregulation. Dev. Biol. 237: 54–67.

PubMed Link

Zimyanin, V. L., K. Belaya, J. Pecreaux, M. J. Gilchrist, A. Clark, I. Davis and D. St. Johnston. 2008. In vivo imaging of oskar mRNA transport reveals the mechanism of posterior localization. Cell 134(5): 843–853.

PubMed Link