Birds and Mammals

Abdalla, H., Y. Yoshizawa and S. Hochi 2009. Active demethylation of paternal genome in mammalian zygotes. J. Reprod. Dev. 55: 356–360.

PubMed Link

Adamo, A. and 6 others. 2011. LSD1 regulates the balance between self-renewal and differentiation in human embryonic stem cells. Nature Cell Biol. 13: 652–660.

PubMed Link

Afzelius, B. A. 1976. A human syndrome caused by immotile cilia. Science 193: 317–319.

PubMed Link

Alev, C., Y. Wu, Y. Nakaya and G. Sheng. 2013. Decoupling of amniote gastrulation and streak formation reveals a morphogenetic unity in vertebrate mesoderm induction. Development 140: 2691–2696

PubMed Link

Arendt, D. and K. Nübler-Jung. 1999. Rearranging gastrulation in the name of yolk: Evolution of gastrulation in yolk-rich amniote eggs. Mech. Dev. 81: 3–22.

PubMed Link

Bachiller, D. and 10 others. 2000. The organizer factors Chordin and Noggin are required for mouse forebrain development. Nature 403: 658–661.

PubMed Link

Bachvarova, R. F., I. Skromne and C. D. Stern. 1998. Induction of primitive streak and Hensen’s node by the posterior marginal zone in the early chick embryo. Development 125: 3521–3534.

PubMed Link

Balinsky, B. I. 1975. Introduction to Embryology, 4th Ed. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Barlow, P., D. A. J. Owen and C. Graham. 1972. DNA synthesis in the preimplantation mouse embryo. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 27: 431–445.

PubMed Link

Beddington, R. S. P. and E. J. Robertson. 1999. Axis development and early asymmetry in mammals. Cell 96: 195–209.

PubMed Link

Bellairs, R. 1986. The primitive streak. Anat. Embryol. 174: 1–14.

PubMed Link

Bellairs, R., F. W. Lorenz and T. Dunlap. 1978. Cleavage in the chick embryo. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 43: 55–69.

PubMed Link

Bertocchini, F. and C. D. Stern. 2002. The hypoblast of the chick embryo positions the primitive streak by antagonizing Nodal signaling. Dev. Cell 3: 735–744.

PubMed Link

Bertocchini, F. C. Alev, Y. Nakaya and G. Sheng. 2013. A little winning streak: The reptilian-eye view of gastrulation in birds. Dev. Growth Differ. 55: 52–59.

PubMed Link

Bertocchini, F., I. Skromne, L. Wolpert and C. D. Stern. 2004. Determination of embryonic polarity in a regulative system: Evidence for endogenous inhibitors acting sequentially during primitive streak formation in the chick embryo. Development 131: 3381–3390.

PubMed Link

Bertocchini, G. and C. D. Stern. 2012. Gata2 provides an early anterior bias and uncovers a global positioning system for polarity in the amniote embryo. Development 139: 4232–4238.

PubMed Link

Boettger, T., H. Knoetgen, L. Wittler and M. Kessel. 2001. The avian organizer. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 45: 281–287.

PubMed Link

Boncinelli, E., R. Somma, D. Acampora, M. Pannese, M. D’Esposito, A. Faiella and A. Simeone. 1988. Organization of human homeobox genes. Hum. Reprod.3: 880–886.

PubMed Link

Borland, R. M. 1977. Transport processes in the mammalian blastocyst. Dev. Mammals 1: 31–67.

Boyer, L. A. and 13 others. 2005. Core transcriptional regulatory circuitry in human embryonic stem cells. Cell 122: 947–956.

PubMed Link

Braude, P., V. Bolton and S. Moore. 1988. Human gene expression first occurs between the four- and eight-cell stages of preimplantation development. Nature 332: 459–461.

PubMed Link

Brennan, J., C. C. Lu, D. P. Norris, T. A. Rodriguez, R. S. Beddington and E. J. Robertson. 2001. Nodal signalling in the epiblast patterns the early mouse embryo. Nature 411: 965–969.

PubMed Link

Brenner, C. A., R. R. Adler, D. A. Rappolee, R. A. Pedersen and Z. Werb. 1989. Genes for extracellular-matrix-degrading metalloproteases and their inhibitor, TIMP, are expressed during early mammalian development. Genes Dev. 3: 848–859.

PubMed Link

Bruce, A. W. and M. Zernicka-Goetz. 2010. Developmental control of the early mammalian embryo: Competition among heterogeneous cells that biases cell fate. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 20: 485–491.

PubMed Link

Burdsal, C. A., C. H. Damsky and R. A. Pedersen. 1993. The role of E-cadherin and integrins in mesoderm differentiation and migration at the mammalian primitive streak. Development 118: 829–844.

PubMed Link

Burke, A. C., C. E. Nelson, B. A. Morgan and C. Tabin. 1995. Hox genes and the evolution of vertebrate axial morphology. Development 121: 333–346.

PubMed Link

Callebaut, M., E. Van Nueten, F. Harrisson and H. Bortier. 2004. Induction and improved embryonic development by the nucleus of Pander in associated blastoderm parts: Delta or gamma ooplasm. J. Morphol. 260: 201–208. 

PubMed Link

Carroll, S. B. 1995. Homeotic genes and the evolution of arthropods and chordates. Nature 376: 479–485.

PubMed Link

Chapman, S. C., K. Matsumoto, Q. Cai and G. C. Schoenwolf. 2007. Specification of germ layer identity in the chick gastrula. BMC Dev. Biol. 7: 91–107.

PubMed Link

Chazaud, C., Y. Yamanaka, T. Pawson and J. Rossant. 2006. Early lineage segregation between epiblast and primitive endoderm in mouse blastocysts through the Grb2-MAPK pathway. Dev. Cell 10: 615–624.

PubMed Link

Ciruna, B. and J. Rossant. 2001. FGF signaling regulates mesoderm cell fate specification and morphogenetic movement at the primitive streak. Dev. Cell 1: 37–49.

PubMed Link

Collignon, J., I. Varlet and E. J. Robertson. 1996. Relationship between asymmetric nodal expression and the direction of embryonic turning. Nature381: 155–158.

PubMed Link

Coolen, M. and 7 others. 2008. Molecular characterization of the gastrula in the turtle Emys orbicularis: An evolutionary perspective on gastrulation. PLoS One3(7): e2676.

PubMed Link

Cui, C., C. D. Little and B. J. Rongish. 2009. Rotation of organizer tissue contributes to left-right asymmetry. Anat. Rec. 292: 557–561.

PubMed Link

Darnell, D. K., M. R. Stark and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1999. Timing and cell interactions underlying neural induction in the chick embryo. Development 126: 2505–2514.

PubMed Link

Dietrich, J.-E. and T. Hiiragi. 2007. Stochastic patterning in the mouse pre-implantation embryo. Development 134: 4219–4231.

PubMed Link

Diez del Corral, R., I. Olivera-Martinez, A. Goriely, E. Gale, M. Maden and K. Storey. 2003. Opposing FGF and retinoid pathways control ventral neural pattern, neuronal differentiation, and segmentation during body axis extension.Neuron 40: 65–79.

PubMed Link

Dobson, A. T. and 6 others. 2004. The unique transcriptome through day 3 of human preimplantation development. Hum. Mol. Genet. 13: 1461–1470.

PubMed Link

Dubrulle, J. and O. Pourquié. 2004. Fgf8 mRNA decay establishes a gradient that couples axial elongation to patterning in the vertebrate embryo. Nature 427: 419–422.

PubMed Link

Ducibella, T., D. F. Albertini, E. Anderson and J. D. Biggers. 1975. The preimplantation mammalian embryo: Characterization of intercellular junctions and their appearance during development. DevBiol. 45: 231–250. 

PubMed Link

Dyce, J., M. George, H. Goodall and T. P. Fleming. 1987. Do trophectoderm and inner cell mass cells in the mouse blastocyst maintain discrete lineages?Development 100: 685–698.

PubMed Link

Ekkert, J. J., A. McCallum, A. Mears, M. G. Rumsby, I. T. Cameron and T. P. Fleming. 2004. Specific PKC isoforms regulate blastocoel formation during mouse preimplantation development. Dev. Biol. 274:384–401.

PubMed Link

Evans, M. J. and M. H. Kaufman. 1981. Establishment in culture of pluripotent cells from mouse embryos. Nature 292: 154–156.

PubMed Link

Eyal-Giladi, H. 1991. The early embryonic development of the chick, an epigenetic process. Crit. Rev. Poultry Biol. 3: 143–166.

Eyal-Giladi, H. 1997. Establishment of the axis in chordates: Facts and speculations. Development 124: 2285–2296.

PubMed Link

Eyal-Giladi, H., A. Debby and N. Harel. 1992. The posterior section of the chick’s area pellucida and its involvement in hypoblast and primitive streak formation. Development 116: 819–830.

Fleming, T. P. 1987. A quantitative analysis of cell allocation to trophectoderm and inner cell mass in the mouse blastocyst. Dev. Biol. 119: 520–531.

PubMed Link

Fleming, T. P., B. Sheth and I. Fesenko. 2001. Cell adhesion in the preimplantation mammalian embryo and its role in trophectoderm differentiation and blastocyst morphogenesis. Front. Biosci. 6: d1000–1007. 

PubMed Link

Foley, A. C., I. Skromne and C. D. Stern. 2000. Reconciling different models of forebrain induction and patterning: A dual role for the hypoblast. Development127: 3839–3854.

PubMed Link

Frankenberg, S. R., F. R. de Barros, J. Rossant and M. B. Renfree. 2016. The mammalian blastocyst. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Dev. Biol. 5: 210–232.

PubMed Link

Fu, Y., W, Yan, T. J. Mohun and S. M. Evans. 1998. Vertebrate tinmanhomologues XNkx2-3 and XNkx2-5 are required for heart formation in a functionally redundant manner. Development 125: 4439–4449.

PubMed Link

Gaunt, S. J. 1994. Conservation in the Hox code during morphological evolution.Int. J. Dev. Biol. 38: 549–552.

PubMed Link

Gilbert, S. F. and S. Braukmann. 2011. Fertilization narratives in the art of Gustav Klimt, Diego Rivera, and Frida Kahlo: Repression, domination, and eros among cells. Leonardo 44: 221–227.

Gilland, E. H. and A. C. Burke. 2004. Gastrulation in reptiles. In C. D. Stern (ed.), Gastrulation: From Cells to Embryo. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, pp. 205–217.

Gros, J., K. Feistel, C. Viebahn, M. Blum and C. J. Tabin. 2009. Cell movements at Hensen’s node establish left/right asymmetric gene expression in the chick.Science 324: 941–944.

PubMed Link

Guerreiro, I. and 8 others. 2013. Role of a polymorphism in a Hox/Pax-responsive enhancer in the evolution of the vertebrate spine. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110: 10682–10686.

PubMed Link

Guirao, B. and 14 others. 2010. Coupling between hydrodynamic forces and planar cell polarity orients mammalian motile cilia. Nature Cell Biol. 12: 341–350.

PubMed Link

Gulyas, B. J. 1975. A reexamination of the cleavage patterns in eutherian mammalian eggs: Rotation of the blastomere pairs during second cleavage in the rabbit. J. Exp. Zool. 193: 235–248.

PubMed Link

Gunter, C. and R. Dhand. 2002. Human biology by proxy. Nature 420: 509.

Guo, H. and 24 others. 2014. The DNA methylation landscape of human early embryos. Nature 511: 606–610.

PubMed Link

Hall, B. K. 2003. Francis Maitland Balfour (1851–1882): A founder of evolutionary embryology. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 299: 3–8. 

PubMed Link

Hashimoto, M. and 10 others. 2010. Planar polarization of node cells determines the rotational axis of node cilia. Nature Cell Biol. 12: 170–176.

PubMed Link

Hiiragi, T. and D. Solter. 2004. First cleavage plane of the mouse egg not predetermined but defined by the topology of the two apposing nuclei. Nature430: 360–364. 

PubMed Link

Hiramatsu, R. and 8 others. 2013. External mechanical cues trigger the establishment of the anterior-posterior axis in early mouse embryos. Dev. Cell 27: 131–144.

Hume, C. R. and J. Dodd. 1993. Cwnt-8C: A novel Wnt gene with a potential role in primitive streak formation and hindbrain organization. Development 119: 1147–1160.

PubMed Link

Holub, M. 1990. From the intimate life of nude mice. In The Dimension of the Present Moment. Trans. D. Habova and D. Young. Faber and Faber: London.

Hunt, P. and R. Krumlauf. 1991. Deciphering the Hox code: Clues to patterning branchial regions of the head. Cell 66: 1075–1078.

PubMed Link

Hunt, P. and R. Krumlauf. 1992. Hox codes and positional specification in vertebrate embryonic axes. Annu. Rev. Cell Biol. 8: 227–256.

PubMed Link

Jurand, A. 1974. Some aspects of the development of the notochord in mouse embryos. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 32: 1–33.

PubMed Link

Kagey, M. H. and 12 others. 2010. Mediator and cohesin connect gene expression and chromatin architecture. Nature 467: 430–435.

PubMed Link

Kawagishi, R., M. Tahara, K. Sawada, K. Morishige, M. Sakata, K. Tasaka and Y. Murata. 2004. Na+/H+ exchanger-3 is involved in mouse blastocyst formation.J. Exp. Zool. 301A: 767–775. 

PubMed Link

Kawasumi, A. and 7 others. 2011. Left-right asymmetry in the level of active Nodal protein produced in the node is translated into left-right asymmetry in the lateral plate of mouse embryos. Dev. Biol. 353:321–330.

PubMed Link

Keynes, R. and A. Lumsden. 1990. Segmentation and the origin of regional diversity in the vertebrate central nervous system. Neuron 4: 1–9.

PubMed Link

Khaner, O. 1998. The ability to initiate an axis in the avian blastula is concentrated mainly at a posterior site. Dev. Biol. 194: 257–266.

PubMed Link

Khaner, O. 2007a. Morphogenetic mechanisms for axis formation in the avian embryo: A morphological approach. Trends Dev. Biol. 2: 35–69.

Khaner, O. 2007b. The importance of the posterior midline region for axis initiation at early stages of the avian embryo. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 51: 131–137.

PubMed Link

Khaner, O. and H. Eyal-Giladi 1989. The chick’s marginal zone and primitive streak formation. I. Coordinative effect of induction and inhibition. Dev. Biol. 134: 206–214.

PubMed Link

Kmita, M. and D. Duboule 2003. Organizing axes in time and space: 25 years of colinear tinkering. Science 301: 331–333.

PubMed Link

Kochav, S. M. and H. Eyal-Giladi. 1971. Bilateral symmetry in the chick embryo determination by gravity. Science 171: 1027–1029.

PubMed Link

Kosaki, K. and B. Casey. 1998. Genetics of human left-right axis malformations.Semin. Cell Dev. 9: 89–99.

PubMed Link

Kurokawa, D. N. Takasaki, H. Kiyonari, R. Nakayama, C. Kimura-Yoshida, I. Matsuo and S. Aizawa. 2004. Regulation of Otx2 expression and its functions in mouse epiblast and anterior neuroectoderm. Development 131: 3307–3317.

PubMed Link

Kurotaki, Y., K. Hatta, K. Nakao, Y. Nabeshima and T. Fujimori. 2007. Blastocyst axis is specified independently of early cell lineage but aligns with the ZP shape. Science 316: 719–723.

PubMed Link

Kwon, G. S., M. Viotti and A. K. Hadjantonakis. 2008. The endoderm of the mouse embryo arises by dynamic widespread intercalation of embryonic and extraembryonic lineages. Dev. Cell. 15: 509–520.

PubMed Link

Langman, J. 1981. Medical Embryology, 4th Ed. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Larsen, W. J. 1993. Human Embryology. Churchill Livingstone, New York.

Lash, J. W., E. Gosfield III, D. Ostrovsky and R. Bellairs. 1990. Migration of chick blastoderm under the vitelline membrane: The role of fibronectin. Dev. Biol. 139: 407–416.

PubMed Link

Lawson, A. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 2001a. New insights into critical events of avian gastrulation. Anat. Rec. 262: 238–252.

PubMed Link

Lawson, A. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 2001b. Cell populations and morphogenetic movements underlying formation of the avian primitive streak. Genesis 29: 188–195.

PubMed Link

Lawson, K. A., J. J. Meneses and R. A. Pedersen. 1991. Clonal analysis of epiblast fate during germ layer formation in the mouse embryo. Development113: 891–911.

PubMed Link

Lee, H. C. and 9 others. 2013. Cleavage events and sperm dynamics in chick intrauterine embryos. PLoS One 8(11):e80631.

PubMed Link

Levin, M. 1999. Twinning and embryonic left-right asymmetry. Laterality 4: 197–208.

PubMed Link

Levin, M., R. L. Johnson, C. D. Stern, M. Kuehn and C. Tabin. 1995. A molecular pathway determining left-right asymmetry in chick embryogenesis. Cell 82: 803–814.

PubMed Link

Lin, C. R. and 7 others. 1999. Pitx2 regulates lung asymmetry, cardiac positioning, and pituitary and tooth morphogenesis. Nature 401: 279–282.

PubMed Link

Liu, F. and 31 others. 2012. A genome-wide association study identifies five loci influencing facial morphology in Europeans. PLoS Genet. 8(9):e1002932.

PubMed Link

Logan, M., H.-H. Simon and C. Tabin. 1998. Differential regulation of T-box and homeobox transcription factors suggests roles in controlling chick limb-type identity. Development 125: 2825–2835.

PubMed Link

Lohnes, D. 2003. The Cdx1 homeodomain protein: An integrator of posterior signaling in the mouse. Bioessays 25: 971–980.

PubMed Link

Lowe, L. A. and 8 others. 1996. Conserved left-right asymmetry of nodalexpression and alterations in murine situs inversusNature 381: 158–161.

PubMed Link

Mark, W. H., K. Signorelli and E. Lacy. 1985. An insertional mutation in a transgenic mouse line results in developmental arrest at day 5 of gestation.Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 50: 453–463.

PubMed Link

Marson, A. and 19 others. 2008. Connecting microRNA genes to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of embryonic stem cells. Cell 134: 521–533.

PubMed Link

Marson, A. and 19 others. 2008. Connecting microRNA genes to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry of embryonic stem cells. Cell 134: 521–533.

PubMed Link

Martin, G. R. 1981. Isolation of a pluripotent cell line from early mouse embryos cultured in medium conditioned by teratocarcinoma stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 7634–7638.

PubMed Link

Martínez-Frías, M. L. 2009. Conjoined twins presenting with different sex: description of a second case that truly represents the earliest historical evidence in humans. Am. J. Med. Genet. 149A: 1595–1596.

PubMed Link

McDole, K., Y. Xiong, P. A. Iglesias and Y. Zheng. 2011. Lineage mapping the pre-implantation mouse embryo by two-photon microscopy, new insights into the segregation of cell fates. Dev. Biol. 355: 239–249.

PubMed Link

McGinnis, W. and R. Krumlauf. 1992. Homeobox genes and axial patterning. Cell68: 283–302.

PubMed Link

Meno, C. and 7 others. 1996. Left-right asymmetric expression of the TGF-beta family member lefty in mouse embryos. Nature 381: 151–155.

PubMed Link

Mitrani, E., T. Ziv, G. Thomsen, Y. Shimoni, D. A. Melton and A. Bril. 1990. Activin can induce the formation of axial structures and is expressed in the hypoblast of the chick. Cell 63: 495–501.

PubMed Link

Morris, S. A., R. T. Teo, H. Li, P. Robson, D. M. Glover and M. Zernicka-Goetz. 2010. Origin and formation of the first two distinct cell types of the inner cell mass in the mouse embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 6364–6369.

PubMed Link

Motosugi, N., T. Bauer, Z. Polanski and T. Hiiragi. 2005. Polarity of the mouse embryo is established at blastocyst and is not prepatterned. Genes Dev. 19: 1081–1092.

PubMed Link

Mulnard, J. G. 1967. Analyse microcinematographique du developpement de l’oeuf de souris du stade II au blastocyste. Arch. Biol. (Liege) 78: 107–138.

Nagai, H. and 9 others. 2015. Cellular analysis of cleavage-stage chick embryos reveals hidden conservation in vertebrate early development. Development 142: 1279–1286.

PubMed Link

New, D. A. T. 1956. The formation of subblastodermic fluid in hens’ eggs. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 43: 221–227.

New, D. A. T. 1959. Adhesive properties and expansion of the chick blastoderm.J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 7: 146–164.

Nishioka, N. and 17 others. 2009. The Hippo signaling components Lats and Yap pattern Tead4 activity to distinguish mouse trophectoderm from inner cell mass.Dev. Cell 16: 398–410.

PubMed Link

Niwa, H., Y. Toyooka, D. Shimosato, D. Strumpf, K. Takahashi, R. Yagi and J. Rossant. 2005. Interaction between Oct3/4 and Cdx2 determines trophectoderm differentiation. Cell 123: 917–929.

Nonaka, S. and 7 others. 1998. Randomization of left-right asymmetry due to loss of nodal cilia generating leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in mice lacking KIF3B motor protein. Cell 95: 829–837.

PubMed Link

Nonaka, S., H. Shiratori, Y. Saijoh and H. Hamada. 2002. Determination of left-right patterning in the mouse by artificial nodal flow. Nature 418: 96–99.

PubMed Link

O’Sullivan, C. M., S. L. Rancourt, S. Y. Liu and D. E. Rancourt. 2001. A novel murine tryptase involved in blastocyst hatching and outgrowth. Reproduction122: 61–71.

PubMed Link

Oosterveen, T., F. Meijlink and J. Deschamps. 2004. Expression of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase II and sequential activation of 5′ Hoxb genes in the mouse caudal hindbrain. Gene Expr. Patterns 4: 243–247. 

PubMed Link

Otto, A., T. Pieper, C. Viebahn and N. Tsikolia. 2014. Early left-right asymmetries during axial morphogenesis in the chick embryo. Genesis 52: 614–625.

PubMed Link

Pedersen, R. A., K. Wu and H. Batakier. 1986. Origin of the inner cell mass in mouse embryos: Cell lineage analysis by microinjection. Dev. Biol. 117: 581–595.

PubMed Link

Perea-Gomez, A. and 11 others. 2002. Nodal antagonists in the anterior visceral endoderm prevent the formation of multiple primitive streaks. Dev. Cell 3: 745–756.

PubMed Link

Perea-Gomez, A., M. Rhinn and S.-L. Ang. 2001. Role of the anterior visceral endoderm in restricting posterior signals in the mouse embryo. Int. J. Dev. Biol.45: 311–320.

PubMed Link

Perona, R. M. and P. M. Wassarman. 1986. Mouse blastocysts hatch in vitro by using a trypsin-like proteinase associated with cells of mural trophectoderm.Dev. Biol. 114: 42–52.

PubMed Link

Peyrieras, N., F. Hyafil, D. Louvard, H. L. Ploegh and F. Jacob. 1983. Uvomorulin: A non-integral membrane protein of early mouse embryos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 6274–6277.

PubMed Link

Pikó, L. and K. B. Clegg. 1982. Quantitative changes in total RNA, total poly(A), and ribosomes in early mouse embryos. Dev. Biol. 89: 362–378.

PubMed Link

Piotrowska, K. and M. Zernicka-Goetz. 2001. Role for sperm in spatial patterning of the early mouse embryo. Nature 409: 517–521.

PubMed Link

Pollheimer, J. and 8 others. 2006. Activation of the canonical wingless/T-cell factor signaling pathway promotes invasive differentiation of human trophoblast.Am. J. Pathol. 168: 1134–1147.

PubMed Link

Psychoyos, D. and C. D. Stern. 1996. Fates and migratory routes of primitive streak cells in the chick embryo. Development 122: 1523–1534.

PubMed Link

Ralston, A. and J. Rossant. 2005. Genetic regulation of stem cell origins in the mouse embryo. Clin. Genet. 68: 106–112.

Ralston, A. and J. Rossant. 2008. Cdx2 acts downstream of cell polarization to cell-autonomously promote trophectoderm fate in the early mouse embryo. J. Dev. Biol. 313: 614–629.

PubMed Link

Ralston, A. and J. Rossant. 2015. Genetic regulation of stem cell origins in the mouse embryo. Clin. Genet. 68: 106–112.

PubMed Link

Ramathal, C., W. Wang, E. Hunt, I. C. Bagchi and M. K. Bagchi. 2011. Transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPb) regulates the formation of a unique extracellular matrix that controls uterine stromal differentiation and embryo implantation. J. Biol. Chem. 286: 19860–19871.

PubMed Link

Rauber, A. 1876. Über die Stellung des Hünchens im Entwicklungsplan.Englemann, Leipzig.

Raya, A. and J. C. Izpisua-Belmonte. 2004. Unveiling the establishment of left-right asymmetry in the chick embryo. Mech. Dev. 121: 1043–1054.

PubMed Link

Robb, L. and P. P. L. Tam. 2004. Gastrula organiser and embryonic patterning in the mouse. Sem. Cell Dev. Biol. 15: 543–554.

PubMed Link

Rodriguez-Esteban, C., J. Capdevilla, A. N. Economides, J. Pascual, A. Ortiz and J. C. Izpisúa-Belmonte. 1999. The novel Cer-like protein Caronte mediates the establishment of embryonic left-right asymmetry. Nature 401: 243–251.

PubMed Link

Rosenquist, G. C. 1966. A radioautographic study of labeled grafts in the chick blastoderm: Development from primitive-streak stages to stage 12. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Contrib. Embryol. 38: 31–110.

Rosenquist, G. C. 1972. Endoderm movements in the chick embryo between the early short streak and head process stages. J. Exp. Zool. 180: 95–103.

Rossant, J. 2016. Making the mouse blastocyst: Past, present and future. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 116: 275–288.

PubMed Link

Rother, F. and 11 others. 2011. Importin a7 is essential for zygotic genome activation and early mouse development. PLoS One 6(3): e18310.

PubMed Link

Ryan, A. K. and 14 others. 1998. Pitx2 determines left-right asymmetry of internal organs in vertebrates. Nature 394: 545–551.

PubMed Link

Sakai, Y. and 7 others. 2001. The retinoic acid-inactivating enzyme CYP26 is essential for establishing an uneven distribution of retinoic acid along the anterior-posterior axis within the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 15: 213–225.

PubMed Link

Schlesinger, A. B. 1958. The structural significance of the avian yolk in embryogenesis. J. Exp. Zool. 138: 223–258.

Schlueter, J. and T. Brand. 2009. A right-sided pathway invoving Fgf8/snail controls asymmetric development of the proepicardium in the chick embryo.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 106: 7485–7490.

PubMed Link

Schoenwolf, G. C. 1991. Cell movements in the epiblast during gastrulation and neurulation in avian embryos. In R. Keller, W. H. Clark, Jr. and F. Griffin (eds.),Gastrulation: Movements, Patterns, and Molecules. Plenum, New York, pp. 1–28.

Schoenwolf, G. C., V. Garcia-Martinez and M. S. Diaz. 1992. Mesoderm movement and fate during amphibian gastrulation and neurulation. Dev. Dynam.193: 235–248.

PubMed Link

Scott, M. 1992. Vertebrate homeobox gene nomenclature. Cell 71: 551–553.

PubMed Link

Seleiro, E. A. P., D. J. Connolly and J. Cooke. 1996. Early developmental expression and experimental axis determination by the chicken Vg1 gene. Curr. Biol. 6: 1476–1486.

PubMed Link

Sheng, G. 2014. Day-1 chick development. Dev. Dyn. 243: 357–367.

PubMed Link

Simeone, A. 2004. Role of Otx2 during gastrulation. In C. D. Stern (ed.), Gastrulation: From Cell to Embryo. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY pp. 553–561.

Skromne, I. and C. D. Stern. 2002. A hierarchy of gene expression accompanying induction of the primitive streak by Vg1 in the chick embryo.Mech. Dev. 114: 115–118.

PubMed Link

Smith, J. L. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1998. Getting organized: New insights into the organizer of higher vertebrates. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 40: 79–110.

PubMed Link

Smith, Z. D. and 7 others. DNA methylation dynamics of the human preimplantation embryo. Nature 511: 611–615.

PubMed Link

Solnica-Krezel, L. 2005. Conserved patterns of cell movements during vertebrate gastrulation. Curr. Biol. 15: R213–R228.

PubMed Link

Solursh, M. and J. P. Revel. 1978. A scanning electron microscope study of cell shape and cell appendages in the primitive streak region of the rat and chick embryo. Differentiation 11: 185–190.

PubMed Link

Spratt, N. T., Jr. 1946. Formation of the primitive streak in the explanted chick blastoderm marked with carbon particles. J. Exp. Zool. 103: 259–304.

PubMed Link

Spratt, N. T., Jr. 1947. Regression and shortening of the primitive streak in the explanted chick blastoderm. J. Exp. Zool. 104: 69–100.

PubMed Link

Spratt, N. T., Jr. 1963. Role of the substratum, supracellular continuity, and differential growth in morphogenetic cell movements. Dev. Biol. 7: 51–63.

PubMed Link

Spratt, N. T., Jr. and H. Haas. 1960. Integrative mechanisms in development of early chick blastoderm. I. Regulated potentiality of separate parts. J. Exp. Zool.145: 97–138.

Stern, C. D. 2004. Gastrulation in the chick. In C. D. Stern (ed.), Gastrulation: From Cells to Embryo. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratiory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY pp. 219–232.

Stern, C. D. 2005a. The chick: A great model system becomes even greater.Dev. Cell 8: 9–17. 

PubMed Link

Stern, C. D. 2005b. Neural induction: old problem, new findings, yet more questions. Development 132: 2007–2021.

Stern, C. D. 2007. Making the paper: Phil Cummins. Nature 449: xi.

Stern, C. D. and K. M. Downs. 2012. The hypoblast (visceral endoderm): An evo-devo perspective. Development 139: 1059–1069.

PubMed Link

Stower, M. J. and 8 others. 2015. Bimodal strategy of gastrulation in reptiles. Dev. Dyn. 2015 Jun 112. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.24300.

PubMed Link

Streit, A., A. J. Berliner, C. Papanayotou, A. Sirulnik and C. D. Stern. 2000. Initiation of neural induction by FGF signalling before gastrulation. Nature 406: 74–78.

PubMed Link

Strickland, S., E. Reich and M. I. Sherman. 1976. Plasminogen activator in early embryogenesis: Enzyme production by trophoblast and parietal endoderm. Cell9: 231–240.

PubMed Link

Strumpf, D., C.-A. Mao, Y. Yamanaka, A. Ralston, K. Chawengsaksophak, F. Beck and J. Rossant. 2005. Cdx2 is required for correct cell fate specification and differentiation of trophectoderm in the mouse blastocyst. Development 132: 2093–2102.

PubMed Link

Sulik, K., D. B. Dehart, J. L. Carson, T. Vrablic, K. Gesteland and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1994. Morphogenesis of the murine node and notochordal plate.Dev. Dynam. 201: 260–278.

PubMed Link

Sun, B. I., S. M. Bush, L. A. Collins-Racie, E. R. LaVallie, E. A. DiBlasio-Smith, N. M. Wolfman, J. M. McCoy and H. L. Sive. derriere: a TGF-beta family member required for posterior development in Xenopus. Development 126: 1467–1482.

Sun, J. and J. Tower. 1999. FLP recombinase-mediated induction of Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase transgene expression can extend the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster flies. Mol. Cell Biol. 19: 216–228.

PubMed Link

Sweetman, D., L. Wagstaff, O. Cooper, C. Weijer and A. Münsterberg. 2008. The migration of paraxial and lateral plate mesoderm cells emerging from the late primitive streak is controlled by different Wnt signals. BMC Dev. Biol. 8: 63.

PubMed Link

Tanaka, S., T. Kunath, A.-K. Hadjantonakis, A. Nagy and J. Rossant. 1998. Promotion of trophoblast stem cell proliferation by Fgf4. Science 282: 2072–2075.

PubMed Link

Tarkowski, A. K., A. Suwiska, R. Czolowska and W. Ozdze?ski. 2010. Individual blastomeres of 16- and 32-cell mouse embryos are able to develop into foetuses and mice. Dev. Biol. 348: 190–198.

PubMed Link

Torlopp, A. and 6 others. 2014. The transcription factor Pitx2 positions the embryonic axis and regulates twinning. Elife. 2014 Dec 11;3:e03743. doi: 10.7554/eLife.03743.

PubMed Link

Tsikolia, N., S. Schröder, P. Schwartz and C. Viebahn. 2012. Paraxial left-sided nodal expression and the start of left-right patterning in the early chick embryo.Differentiation 84: 380–391.

PubMed Link

Tu, Z., H. Ra, S. Zhang, G. Xia, B. Wang and H. Wang. 2014. Molecular determinants of uterine receptivity. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 58: 147–154.

PubMed Link

Vanderberg, L. N. and M. Levin. 2013. A unified model for left-right asymmetry? Comparison and synthesis of molecular models of embryonic laterality. Dev. Biol. 379: 1–15.

PubMed Link

Voiculescu, O., F. Bertocchini, L. Wolpert, R. E. Keller and C. D. Stern. 2007. The amniote primitive streak is defined by epithelial cell intercalation before gastrulation. Nature. 449: 1049–1052.

PubMed Link

Voiculescu, O., L. Bodenstein, I. J. Lau and C. D. Stern. 2014. Local cell interactions and self-amplifying individual cell ingression drive amniote gastrulation. Elife 21;3:e01817.

PubMed Link

Waddington, C. H. 1933. Induction by the primitive streak and its derivatives in the chick. J. Exp. Zool. 10: 38–46.

Wallingford, M. C., J. R. Angelo and J. Mager. 2013. Morphogenetic analysis of peri-implantation development. Dev. Dyn. 242: 1110–1120.

Wellik, D. M. 2009. Hox genes and vertebrate axial pattern. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 88: 257–278.

PubMed Link

Wellik, D. M. and M. R. Capecchi. 2003. Hox10 and Hox11 genes are required to globally pattern the mammalian skeleton. Science 301: 363–367. 

PubMed Link

Wilkinson, D. G., S. Bhatt, M. Cook, E. Boncinelli and R. Krumlauf. 1989. Segmental expression of Hox-2 homeobox-containing genes in the developing mouse hindbrain. Nature 341: 405–409.

PubMed Link

Williams, M., C. Burdsal, A. Periasamy, M. Lewandoski and A. Sutherland. 2012. Mouse primitive streak forms in situ by initiation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition without migration of a cell population. Dev. Dyn. 241: 270–283.

Wilson, V., I. Olivera-Martinez and K. G. Storey. 2009. Stem cells, signals, and vertebrate body axis extension. Development 136: 1591–1604.

PubMed Link

Wolpert, L., R. Beddington, J. Brockes, T. Jessell, P. Lawrence and E. Meyerowitz. 1998. Principles of Development. Current Biology Ltd., London.

Wu, G. and H. R. Schöler. 2016. Lineage segregation in the totipotent embryo. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 117: 301–317.

PubMed Link

Xu, J. S. and 6 others. 2004. Embryotrophic factor-3 from human oviductal cells enhances proliferation, suppresses apoptosis and stimulates the expression of the b-1 subunit of sodium-potassium ATPase in mouse embryos. Hum. Reprod. 19: 2919–2926.

PubMed Link

Yamamoto, M. and 7 others. 2004. Nodal antagonists regulate formation of the anteroposterior axis of the mouse embryo. Nature 428: 387–392.

PubMed Link

Yamanaka, Y., F. Lanner and J. Rossant. 2010. FGF signal-dependent segregation of primitive endoderm and epiblast in the mouse blastocyst. Development 137: 715–724.

PubMed Link

Yang, X., D. Dormann, A. E. Münsterberg and C. J. Weijer. 2002. Cell movement patterns during gastrulation in the chick are controlled by positive and negative chemotaxis mediated by Fgf4 and Fgf8. Dev. Cell 3: 425–437. 

PubMed Link

Yoshiba, S. and 14 others. 2012. Cilia at the node of mouse embryos sense fluid flow for left-right determination via Pkd2. Science 338: 226–231.

PubMed Link

Young, R. A. 2011. Control of embryonic stem cell state. Cell 144: 940–954.

PubMed Link

Yu, X., F. He, T. Zhang, R. A. Espinoza-Lewis, L. Lin, J. Yang and Y. Chen. 2008. Cerberus functions as a BMP agonist to synergistically induce nodal expression during left-right axis determination in the chick embryo. Dev. Dyn. 237: 3613–3623.

PubMed Link

Zeng, F. and R. M. Schultz. 2005. RNA transcript profiling during zygotic gene activation in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Dev. Biol. 283: 40–57.

PubMed Link