Chapter 11 Visual Summary

Emotions are a constellation of feelings, behaviors, and physiological reactions. The James-Lange theory considered emotions to be the perceptions of stimulus-induced bodily changes. The Cannon-Bard theory emphasized simultaneous emotional experience and bodily response. In Schachter's cognitive theory, we attribute visceral arousal to specific emotions by analyzing the physical and social context. Review Figure 11.1 and Figure 11.2, Animation 11.2

Distinct facial expressions represent anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt, and embarrassment, which are interpreted similarly across many cultures. Polygraphs actually measure activation of the sympathetic nervous system, and therefore reflect stress, not lying. Review Figure 11.4, Figure 11.5, Figure 11.6, Figure 11.7, Box 11.1

Facial expressions are controlled by distinct sets of facial muscles controlled by the facial and trigeminal nerves. Emotions evolved as adaptations that trigger adaptive preprogrammed sequences of behavior, and they help in social relations. Review Figure 11.8 and Figure 11.9

Lesions revealed an interconnected brain circuit, the limbic system (which includes the amygdala) that mediates and controls emotions. Electrical self-stimulation of some brain regions is rewarding. Review Figure 11.10 and Figure 11.11

Fear is mediated by circuitry involving the amygdala, which receives information both through a rapid direct route and via cortical sensory regions, allowing for both immediate responses and cognitive processing. Review Figure 11.12 and Figure 11.13, Activity 11.1

Aggression is increased by androgens such as testosterone and seems to be inhibited by serotonergic systems in the brain. Stimulation of some limbic system regions elicits a species-typical pattern of aggression. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) appears to play a central role in aggression in both sexes. Review Figure 11.15

Stress elevates levels of the hormones cortisol, from the adrenal cortex, and epinephrine and norepinephrine, from the adrenal medulla, while suppressing other hormones (testosterone). These responses to stress are adaptive in the short run, but in socially complex species that can experience stress for long periods, these hormonal responses decrease immune system competence, damaging our health. Review Figure 11.17, Figure 11.18, Figure 11.19, Table 11.1, Activity 11.2, Video 11.3

The nervous, endocrine, and immune systems interact reciprocally to monitor and maintain health. Childhood stress, including being subjected to bullying, seems to increase lifelong risk for schizophrenia, depression, and suicide. Review Figure 11.20 and Figure 11.21

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