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Return to Principles of Development 6e Student Resources
Chapter 13 Self-test questions
In a comparison of plant and animal development, it is found that
animals evolved from plants, and animal developmental strategies are derived from those of plants.
fully differentiated cells of plants are still totipotent, and will readily form a complete fertile plant, whereas the differentiated state of animal cells is difficult to reverse.
gene regulation evolved later than the split between plants and animals, and is executed differently in the two kingdoms.
basic metabolic pathways and intracellular structures evolved separately in plants and animals and are fundamentally different
How many protein-coding genes are present in the genome of humans,
19,000 - 27,000 - 14,000 - 19,000
20,000 - 14,000 - 19,000 - 27,000
27,000 - 21,000 - 19,000 - 14,000
14,000 - 19,000 - 21,000 - 27,000
Why has the diploid genome been an advantage in studying the development of
It is assumed that polyploidy plants use developmental mechanisms that are unlike those of animals, whereas the developmental mechanisms used by
are identical to those of animals, since both are diploid.
The diploid genome of
provides a marker for the
cells in chimeras made with other plants.
The diploid genome allows genetic analysis of development like that carried out in
and mice in animals.
The development of polyploid plants is too variable to be of any use in studies of development.
Embryogenesis in plants occurs
in the ovule, after the seed is fertilized and shed by the plant
in the seed after it germinates
in the seed, after the seed is fertilized
inside the ovule, before the seed is shed by the plant
The fate map of the
embryo at the heart stage indicates that
although none of the adult structures has formed, the regions that will give rise to the meristems, which will in turn give rise to adult structures, can be identified
development in plants is so indeterminate that a true fate map cannot be drawn
the primordia of the leaves, stems, and roots have already formed
the three germ layers that will give rise to roots, stems, and leaves have formed
One of the earliest events in
development is formation of the _____ axis, in response to a gradient of _____.
apical-basal, Pin proteins
Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the auxin response in plants
Auxin is transported from basal cells to apical cells by PIN7
is required for an auxin gradient
In the presence of auxin, AUX/IAA proteins bind to AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) to promote transcription of auxin response genes
Auxin promotes degradation of AUX/IAA proteins
Which statement is true about the totipotency of cells?
All animal and plant cells are totipotent.
In plants, many cells are totipotent, whereas in animals, only the fertilized egg is totipotent.
Mammalian embryonic stem cells are totipotent.
Only the stem cells of animals, and the meristem cells of plants are totipotent.
Which of the following mechanisms contributes to the maintenance of the shoot meristem in adult
The transcription factor MONOPTEROS is expressed in shoot meristem cells and maintains them in their undifferentiated state.
Shoot meristem cells secrete auxin.
The transcription factor WUSCHEL is expressed in the organizing center and initiates a signal to the overlying cells to behave as stem cells.
All of the options given are involved in the specification and maintenance of shoot meristems.
Refer to Figure 13.18 on page 630 in the text: in the lower portion of the figure, where would leaf primordium #7 appear?
directly on the proximal (toward the center) side of leaf primordium #6
directly opposite leaf primordium #6, at the proximal junction of leaf primordia #4 and #5
directly opposite leaf primordium #6, on the distal (toward the outside) side of the junction of leaf primordia #1 and #2
adjacent to leaf primordium #6, on the proximal side of primordium #4
on the opposite, distal, side of leaf primordium #3, relative to leaf primordium #6
What is meant by the word 'whorl' in discussing floral development?
Flowers consist of four different types of organs, which occur in concentric rings called 'whorls.'
The floral meristem has to rotate during flower formation, giving the process the name 'whorl.'
The flowers of
appear as the stem elongates in a pattern called a 'whorl.'
The six stamens in a dicot flower like that of
form a ring that is called the flower's 'whorl.'
mutation causes the formation of
flowers with only petals and sepals
flowers with only sepals and carpels
flowers with only stamens and carpels
plants completely lacking flowers
In what way are the homeotic genes of flowering plants similar to those of
and other animals?
All homeotic genes encode transcription factors of the homeobox class.
Homeotic genes in both plants and animals encode transcription factors of the MADS-box type.
Mutations in the homeotic genes of flowers cause transformation of one organ into another.
The homeotic genes of flowers are derived during evolution from the same primordial genes used in animals.
How is the ABC model for floral identity in
reminiscent of the models for homeotic gene function derived from studies in
In both organisms, each homeobox gene specifies the identity of a different region of the adult.
In both organisms, one homeotic gene is expressed at the two ends, a second expressed in domains more central to that of the first, and a third expressed most centrally, thus contributing unambiguous identities to all regions of the organism.
In both organisms, it is often the combination of genes present that is critical in unambiguously specifying structures in the adult.
The key responsibility of the homeotic genes in both organisms is the patterning of antero-posterior identity.
How is the
gene and its encoded protein involved in translating day length into a signal that coverts a vegetative shoot meristem into a floral meristem?
CONSTANS protein is degraded in the dark, but accumulates in the leaves as the days get longer.
CONSTANS protein is degraded in the light, and so accumulates in the leaves as the days get shorter.
Peak expression of
occurs at mid-morning.
gene regulates the circadian clock.
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