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Return to Principles of Development 6e Student Resources
Chapter 1 Self-test questions
History and basic concepts
A fertilized egg is called:
Which of the options given is a germ cell?
cells of the gonads
sperm and eggs
Which of the options given reflects Weismann's model of development?
somatic development and change does not contribute directly to the characteristics of the next generation
factors, or "determinants", in the nucleus regulate development
asymmetric divisions resulted in unequal distribution of developmental determinants to daughter cells
all of the options given were important to Weismann's view of biological development
Which statement best describes the relationship between genotype and phenotype?
'Genotype' and 'phenotype' both describe the physical properties of cells and organisms, just using different words or symbols.
Phenotype is entirely the consequence of a cell's genotype, which is why we now recognize the principle of 'genetic determinism.'
The genes found in a cell are that cell's genotype, and genes directly control a cell's phenotype.
The genotype determines what proteins a cell contains, and the proteins in turn determine the cell's properties, or phenotype.
The experiments of Spemann and Mangold first defined what feature of amphibian embryos?
Which of these animals is a vertebrate 'model organism' used in the study of development?
Which would qualify as a dominant allele of a gene?
an allele that confers a phenotype on the organism when heterozygous; that is, when present in only one copy
an allele that confers a phenotype only when both copies of the gene are mutant; that is, when homozygous
an allele that is commonly found in wild populations, as opposed to alleles found in laboratory strains or when a pathological condition is present
an allele that confers a normal phenotype under some conditions, but confers a different, mutant phenotype when conditions such as elevated temperature are present
Which of the basic developmental processes given here is most dependent on cellular movements?
The establishment of the anterior-posterior or dorsal-ventral body axes is called:
The folding of sheets of cells, the migration of cells, and cell death are all mechanisms of:
The process by which developing cells achieve their functional, mature identity as liver, or muscle, or nerve is called:
Genes control development by:
controlling where and when proteins are synthesized
containing small preformed body parts and organs that become "expressed" during development
directly controlling phenotypes, without intermediates or influence from the environment
containing instructions which describe in detail the final form to be achieved during development
The pathway from a gene to a protein in eukaryotic cells involves:
first, transport of mRNA, then its processing, then transcription, then translation
first, transcription of the RNA, then its transport, then processing, then translation
first, translation of the RNA, then its transport, then its processing, then transcription
first, transcription of RNA, then its processing, then its transport, then translation
Which aspect of cellular regulation operates after a protein has been synthesized?
Which term could be used to refer to a segment of DNA?
differential gene expression
gene regulatory protein
What is the difference between "fate" and "specification"?
Cell fate describes the allocation of cells to the germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm, or endoderm, whereas specification describes the exact tissues that each cell will ultimately become.
The fate map of an embryo does not change during development - the fate map of an egg is the same as the fate map of a late blastula - whereas the specification map of an embryo changes continually as the embryo's development proceeds.
The specification state of a cell is determined by transplantation of cells to recipient embryos, whereas the fate of a cell is determined by the culture of those cells in an artificial medium.
The fate of a cell is determined by labelling that cell and following it during normal development, whereas the specification state of a cell is determined by culturing a cell in an artificial medium and observing what tissues form from it.
How could you produce a chimeric mouse?
Divide a morula into two separate clusters of blastomeres and let each cluster form an embryo.
Introduce cells from the inner cell mass of one blastocyst into the inner cell mass of another blastocyst of the same genetic constitution.
Divide a fertilized mouse egg into two halves and let each develop separately.
Introduce cells from the inner cell mass of one blastocyst into the inner cell mass of another blastocyst of a different genetic constitution.
Which of the options given is
a mechanism by which cells communicate with each other?
transcription factors are secreted from one cell and taken up by the target cell, where they influence gene expression
cell surface molecules on adjacent cells interact and initiate a signal transduction process that influences cellular behavior and gene expression
cells secrete proteins and small hydrophilic molecules, which interact with cell surface receptors on target cells and initiate a signal transduction process that influences cellular behavior and gene expression
cells secrete small hydrophobic molecules which diffuse into target cells, interact with cytoplasmic receptors, and influence gene expression
Signal transduction can involve:
interaction of a molecule with a receptor at the cell surface
intracellular modification of proteins by phosphorylation
production of second messengers such as cAMP
all of the options given can be components of a signal transduction pathway
A morphogen is
a cell or group of cells that signal other cells to become determined in a specific way
a gene that causes a cell or group of cells to adopt a particular shape
a signaling molecule that causes the differentiation of neighboring cells
a signaling molecule that confers concentration-dependent positional information
What distinguishes stem cells from other cell types?
Although all cell types can divide, only stem cells differentiate after division.
Stem cells are able to divide to produce populations of cells that differentiate into a related set of cells.
Stem cells divide asymmetrically to give rise to one daughter cell that remains a stem cell, and a second daughter cell that differentiates into one or more cell types.
Stem cells have a special type of cell division in which they form small stems that then pinch off to give rise to the daughter cell.
How does organismal development evolve to give rise to new forms and species?
A structure like the fin of a fish evolves into a structure like a human hand through the needs of the organism for a hand rather than a fin.
Changes in genes that will be favored by natural selection will be induced, and thereby produce favorable changes in development.
Changes in genes will alter an organism's development, and if the new developmental patterns are favored by the environment they will be retained through natural selection.
The characteristics acquired by the organism during its lifetime are passed on to the offspring; if the changes are favorable to the organism, they will eventually come to be encoded in the genes that govern development.
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