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1. What are the main difficulties in determining population densities?
Population densities can be difficult to determine for three main reasons. First, it can be difficult to collect accurate data indicating the number of people in a certain region. Second, if data are collected, they may not have been collected for the purpose of calculating population density. Third, population density is associated with spatial scale: as the area diminishes, accuracy of measurement increases.
2. When did each of the four waves of immigration to Canada occur and how has each shaped Canada’s population as ethnically diverse?
The first wave occurred between 1901 and 1914, with many Europeans establishing themselves in Canada. The second wave, after World War II, was based on economic reasons, specifically the perceived need for a labour force. At that time the Canadian government still favoured European and British immigrants but allowed quotas from Africa, the Caribbean, and Asia. As of 1962, population growth slowed and restrictions related to race and nationality dropped, and by 1967, a point system was established that balanced education, employment qualifications, language competence, and family ties. Under the point system, more people migrated from Asia and the Caribbean. As of 1978, the fourth wave, which supported refugees and persecuted peoples, was added as an objective of immigration policy. This succession of policies affected the number and country of origin of immigrants, with the later policies allowing people into Canada from a larger number of countries and world regions.
3. How is the Grameen Bank innovative in its practices and why is it successful?
The Grameen Bank is innovative in that it allows the poorest groups to have access to financial credit. This credit is offered as small loans to communities of people, particularly women, and allows them to select their own projects and build up a credit history, thereby providing access to more credit. Loan officers meet with these communities regularly. With a focus on the collective responsibility of the group, this loan system builds both community ties and economic opportunities.
4. What is the difference between undernutrition and malnutrition?
A diet must be sufficient in both quantity and quality of food. Undernutrition is the insufficient quantity of food and calories. Malnutrition is the insufficient quality of food and concerns the way vitamins and minerals affect physical development.
5. How might current global economic factors affect the attainment of Millennium Development Goals?
The Millennium Development Goals are associated with a drastic reduction in poverty but the global economic crisis is making these goals difficult to reach due to decreasing economic opportunities. In particular, food prices are rising, adversely affecting poorer populations.