Cell-to-Cell Communication: Mechanisms of Morphogenesis

Acloque, H., M. S. Adams, K. Fishwick, M. Bronner-Fraser and M. A. Nieto. 2009. Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions: The importance of changing cell state in development and disease. J. Clin. Invest. 119: 1438–1449.

PubMed Link

Akiyama, T., K. Kamimura, C. Firkus, S. Takeo, O. Shimmi and H. Nakato. 2008. Dally regulates Dpp morphogen gradient formation by stabilizing Dpp on the cell surface. Dev. Biol. 313: 408–419.

PubMed Link

Alvarez-Buylla, A., J. M. García-Verdugo, A. S. Mateo and H. Merchant-Larios. 1998. Primary neural precursors and intermitotic nuclear migration in the ventricular zone of adult canaries. J. Neurosci. 18: 1020–1037.

PubMed Link

Ananthakrishnan, R. and A. Ehrlicher. 2007. The forces behind cell movement. Int. J. Biol. Sci. 3: 303–317.

Artavanis-Tsakonas, S. and M. A. Muskavitch M. 2010. Notch: The past, the present, and the future. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 92: 1–29.

PubMed Link

Babb, S. G., S. M. Kotradi, B. Shah, C. Chiappini-Williamson, L. N. Bell, G. Schmeiser, E. Chen, Q. Liu and J. A. Marrs. 2005. Zebrafish R-cadherin (Cdh4) controls visual system development and differentiation. Dev. Dyn. 233: 930–945.

PubMed Link

Babu, D. and S. Roy. 2013. Left-right asymmetry: Cilia stir up new surprises in the node. Open Biol. 3: 130052.

PubMed Link

Balasubramanian, R. and X. Zhang. 2016. Mechanisms of FGF gradient formation during embryogenesis. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 53: 94–100.

PubMed Link

Barkoulas, M., J. S. van Zon, J. Milloz, A. van Oudenaarden and M. A. Félix. 2013. Robustness and epistasis in the C. elegans vulval signaling network revealed by pathway dosage modulation. Dev. Cell. 24: 64–75.

PubMed Link

Beachy, P. A., M. K. Cooper, K. E. Young, D. P. von Kessler, W. J. Park, T. M. Hall, D. J. Leahy and J. A. Porter. 1997. Multiple roles of cholesterol in hedgehog protein biosynthesis and signaling. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 62: 191–204.

PubMed Link

Ben-Zvi, D. and N. Barkai. 2010. Scaling of morphogen gradients by an expansion-repression integral feedback control. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107: 6924–6929.

PubMed Link

Ben-Zvi, D., G. Pyrowolakis, N. Barkai and B. Z. Shilo. 2011. Expansion-repression mechanism for scaling the Dpp activation gradient in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Curr. Biol. 21: 1391–1396. 

PubMed Link

Berendsen, A. D., L. W. Fisher, T. M. Kilts, R. T. Owens, P. G. Robey, J. S. Gutkind and M. F. Young. 2011. Modulation of canonical Wnt signaling by the extracellular matrix component biglycan. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 17022–17027.

PubMed Link

Bhatla, S. C. 2018. Auxins. In S. C. Bhatla and M. A. Lal (eds.), Plant Physiology, Development and Metabolism. Springer, Singapore, 569−601.

Bischoff, M., A. C. Gradilla, I. Seijo, G. Andrés, C. Rodríguez-Navas, L. González-Méndez and I. Guerrero. 2013. Cytonemes are required for the establishment of a normal Hedgehog morphogen gradient in Drosophila epithelia. Nat. Cell Biol. 15: 1269–1281.

PubMed Link

Bissell, M. J., H. G. Hall and G. Parry. 1982. How does the extracellular matrix direct gene expression? J. Theor. Biol. 99: 31–68.

PubMed Link

Bissell, M., I. S. Mian, D. Raditsky and E. Turley. 2003. Tissue-specificity: Structural cues allow diverse phenotypes form a constant genotype. In G. B. Müller and S. A. Newman (eds.), Origin of Organismal Form. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Bitgood, M. J. and A. P. McMahon. 1995. Hedgehog and BMP genes are coexpressed at many diverse sites of cell-cell interaction in the mouse embryo. Dev. Biol. 172: 126–158.

PubMed Link

Bitgood, M. J., L. Shen and A. P. McMahon. 1996. Sertoli cell signalling by desert hedgehog regulates the male germline. Curr. Biol. 6: 298–304.

PubMed Link

Blum, M., K. Feistel, T. Thumberger and A. Schweickert. 2014. The evolution and conservation of left-right patterning mechanisms. Development 141: 1603–1613.

PubMed Link

Bökel, C. and M. Brand. 2013. Generation and interpretation of FGF morphogen gradients in vertebrates. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 23: 415–422.

PubMed Link

Bollenbach, T., P. Pantazis, A. Kicheva, C. Bökel, M. González-Gaitán and F. Jülicher. 2008. Precision of the Dpp gradient. Development 135: 1137–1146.

PubMed Link

Breitling, R. 2007. Greased hedgehogs: New links between hedgehog signaling and cholesterol metabolism. BioEssays 29: 1085–1094.

PubMed Link

Brent, A. E. and C. J. Tabin. 2004. FGF acts directly on the somitic tendon progenitors through the Ets transcription factors Pea3 and Erm to regulate scleraxis expression. Development 131: 3885–3896.

PubMed Link

Briscoe, J. and P. P. Thérond. 2013. The mechanisms of Hedgehog signalling and its roles in development and disease. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 14: 416–429.

PubMed Link

Briscoe, J., D. Guschin and M. Müller. 1994. Signal transduction: Just another signalling pathway. Curr. Biol. 4: 1033–1036.

PubMed Link

Cadigan, K. M. and R. Nusse. 1997. Wnt signaling: A common theme in animal development. Genes Dev. 24: 3286–3306.

PubMed Link

Cales, C., J. F. Hancock, C. J. Marshall and A. Hall. 1988. The cytoplasmic protein GAP is implicated as a target for regulation by the ras gene product. Nature 332: 548–551.

PubMed Link

Caparrós-Martín, J. A. and 10 others. 2013. The ciliary Evc/Evc2 complex interacts with Smo and controls Hedgehog pathway activity in chondrocytes by regulating Sufu/Gli3 dissociation and Gli3 trafficking in primary cilia. Hum. Mol. Genet. 22: 124–139.

PubMed Link

Capurro, M. I., P. Xu, W. Shi, F. Li, A. Jia and J. Filmus. 2008. Glypican-3 inhibits Hedgehog signaling during development by competing with patched for Hedgehog binding. Dev. Cell. 14: 700–711.

PubMed Link

Casanova, J. 2007. The emergence of shape: Notions from the study of the Drosophila tracheal system. EMBO Rep. 8: 335–339.

PubMed Link

Cela, C. and M. Llimargas. 2006. Egfr is essential for maintaining epithelial integrity during tracheal remodelling in DrosophilaDevelopment 133: 3115–3125.

PubMed Link

Chen, N. and I. Greenwald. 2004. The lateral signal for LIN-12/Notch in C. elegans vulval development comprises redundant secreted and transmembrane DSL proteins. Dev. Cell 6: 183−192.

Chen, W. T., E. Hasegawa, T. Hasegawa, C. Weinstock and K. M. Yamada. 1985. Development of cell-surface linkage complexes in cultured fibroblasts. J. Cell Biol. 100: 1103–1114.

PubMed Link

Chiang, C., Y. Litingung, E. Lee, K. E. Young, J. L. Corden, H. Westphal and P. A. Beachy. 1996. Cyclopia and defective axial patterning in mice lacking sonic hedgehog gene function. Nature 383: 407–413.

PubMed Link

Chiarugi, P. and E. Giannoni. 2008. Anoikis: A necessary death program for anchorage-dependent cells. Biochem. Pharm. 76: 1352–1364.

PubMed Link

Chien, A. J., W. H. Conrad and R. T. Moon. 2009. A Wnt survival guide: From flies to human disease. J. Invest. Dermatol. 129: 1614–1627.

PubMed Link

Chitnis, A., D. Henrique, J. Lewis, D. Ish-Horowicz and C. Kintner. 1995. Primary neurogenesis in Xenopus embryos regulated by a homologue of the Drosophilagene deltaNature 375: 761–766.

PubMed Link

Christian, J. L. 2011. Morphogen gradients in development: From form to function. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Dev. Biol. 1: 3–15.

Link

Ciruna, B., A. Jenny, D. Lee, M. Mlodzik and A. F. Schier. 2006. Planar cell polarity signalling couples cell division and morphogenesis during neurulation. Nature 439: 220–224.

PubMed Link

Clevers, H. and R. Nusse. 2012. Wnt/β-catenin signaling and disease. Cell 149: 1192–1205.

PubMed Link

Cooley, J., S. Whitaker, S. Sweeney, S. Fraser and B. Davidson. 2011. Cytoskeletal polarity mediates localized induction of the heart progenitor lineage. Nat.  Cell Biol. 13: 952–957.

PubMed Link

Cooper, M. K., J. A. Porter, K. E. Young and P. A. Beachy. 1998. Teratogen-mediated inhibition of target tissue response to hedgehog signaling. Science 280: 1603–1607.

PubMed Link

Cvekl, A. and J. Piatigorsky. 1996. Lens development and crystallin gene expression: Many roles for Pax-6BioEssays 18: 621–630.

PubMed Link

Dahal, G. R., J. Rawson, B. Gassaway, B. Kwok, Y. Tong, L. J. Ptácek and E. Bates. 2012. An inwardly rectifying K+ channel is required for patterning. Development 139: 3653–3664.

PubMed Link

Daniel, C. W., G. B. Silberstein, K. Van Horn, P. Strickland, S. Robinson. 1989. TGF-b1-induced inhibition of mouse mammary ductal growth: Developmental specificity and characterization. Dev. Biol. 135: 20–30.

PubMed Link

Davis, G. S., H. M. Phillips and M. S. Steinberg. 1997. Germ-layer surface tension and “tissue affinities” in Rana pipiens gastrulae: Quantitative measurement. Dev. Biol. 192: 630–644.

PubMed Link

Davy, A. and P. Soriano. 2005. Ephrin signaling in vivo: Look both ways. Dev. Dyn. 232: 1–10.

PubMed Link

Davy, A., J. Aubin and P. Soriano. 2004. Ephrin-B1 forward and reverse signaling is required for mouse development. Genes Dev. 18: 572–583.

PubMed Link

Deng, C., A. Wynshaw-Boris, F. Zhou, A. Kuo and P. Leder. 1996. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 is a negative regulator of bone growth. Cell 84: 911–921.

PubMed Link

Dorsky, R. I., W. S. Chang, D. H. Rapaport and W. A. Harris. 1997. Regulation of neuronal diversity in the Xenopus retina by Delta signalling. Nature 385: 67–74.

PubMed Link

Dreno, B., N. Basset-Seguin, I. Caro, H. Yue and D. Schadendorf. 2014. Clinical benefit assessment of vismodegib therapy in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma. Oncologist 19: 790–796.

PubMed Link

Duguay, D., R. Foty, and M. S. Steinberg. 2003. Cadherin-mediated cell adhesion and tissue segregation: Qualitative and quantitative determinants. Dev. Biol. 253: 309–323.

PubMed Link

Dyson, S. and J. B. Gurdon. 1998. The interpretation of position in a morphogen gradient as revealed by occupancy of activin receptors. Cell 93: 557–568.

PubMed Link

Erdem, G. U., M. A. Sendur, N. Y. Ozdemir, O. Yazıcı and N. Zengin. 2015. A comprehensive review of the role of the hedgehog pathway and vismodegib in the management of basal cell carcinoma. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 31: 743–756.

PubMed Link

Fagotto, F. 2014. The cellular basis of tissue separation. Development 141: 3303–3318.

PubMed Link

Fagotto, F., N. Rohani, A. S. Touret and R. Li. 2013. A molecular base for cell sorting at embryonic boundaries: Contact inhibition of cadherin adhesion by ephrin/Eph-dependent contractility. Dev. Cell. 27: 72–87.

PubMed Link

Firnberg, N. and A. Neubüser. 2002. FGF signaling regulates expression of Tbx2, Erm, Pea3, and Pax3 in the early nasal region. Dev. Biol. 247: 237–250.

PubMed Link

Foty, R. A. and M. S. Steinberg. 2005. The differential adhesion hypothesis: A direct evaluation. Dev. Biol. 278: 255–263.

PubMed Link

Foty, R. A. and M. S. Steinberg. 2013. Differential adhesion in model systems. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Dev. Biol. 2: 631–645.

PubMed Link

Foty, R. A., C. M. Pfleger, G. Forgacs and M. S. Steinberg. 1996. Surface tensions of embryonic cells predict their mutual envelopment behavior. Development 122: 1611–1620.

PubMed Link

Franch-Marro, X. and J. Casanova. 2000. The alternative migratory pathways of the Drosophila tracheal cells are associated with distinct subsets of mesodermal cells. Dev. Biol. 227: 80–90.

PubMed Link

Friml, J., A. Vieten, M. Sauer, D. Weijers, H. Schwarz, T. Hamann, R. Offringa and G. Jürgens. 2003. Efflux-dependent auxin gradients establish the apical-basal axis of Arabidopsis. Nature 426: 147−153.

Frisch, S. M. and H. Francis. 1994. Disruption of epithelial cell-matrix interactions induces apoptosis. J. Cell Biol. 124: 619–626.

PubMed Link

Frisch, S. M. and E. Ruoslahti. 1997. Integrins and anoikis. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol.9: 701–706.

PubMed Link

Fujiwara, M., T. Uchida, N. Osumi-Yamashita and K. Eto. 1994. Uchida rat (rSey): A new mutant rat with craniofacial abnormalities resembling those of the mouse Sey mutant. Differentiation 57: 31–38.

PubMed Link

Furuta, Y. and B. L. M. Hogan. 1998. BMP4 is essential for lens induction in the mouse embryo. Genes Dev. 12: 3764–3775.

PubMed Link

García-García, M. J. and K. V. Anderson. 2003. Essential role of glycosaminoglycans in Fgf signaling during mouse gastrulation. Cell 114: 727–737. 

PubMed Link

Ghabrial, A. S. and M. A. Krasnow. 2006. Social interactions among epithelial cells during tracheal branching morphogenesis. Nature 441: 746–749.

PubMed Link

Gilbert-Barness, E. and J. M. Opitz. 1996. Abnormal bone development: Histopathology and skeletal dysplasias. In M. E. Martini-Neri, G. Neri and J. M. Opitz (eds.), Gene Regulation and Fetal Development. March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation Original Article Series 30: (1). Wiley-Liss, New York, 103–156.

Goetz, S. C. and K. V. Anderson. 2010. The primary cilium: A signalling centre during vertebrate development. Nat. Rev. Genet.11: 331–344.

PubMed Link

Goustin, A. S., C. Betsholtz, S. Pfeifer-Ohlsson, H. Persson, J. Rydnert, M. Bywater, G. Holmgren, C. H. Heldin, B. Westermark and R. Ohlsson. 1985. Coexpression of the sis and myc proto-oncogenes in developing human placenta suggests autocrine control of trophoblast growth. Cell 41: 301–312.

PubMed Link

Grainger, R. M. 1992. Embryonic lens induction: Shedding light on vertebrate tissue determination. Trends Genet. 8: 349–356.

PubMed Link

Green, J. B. and J. C. Smith. 1990. Graded changes in dose of a Xenopus activin A homologue elicit stepwise transitions in embryonic cell fate. Nature 47: 391–394.

PubMed Link

Green, J., R. Nusse and R. van Amerongen. 2014. The role of Ryk and Ror receptor tyrosine kinases in Wnt signal transduction. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 6: a009175.

PubMed Link

Greenwald, I. and G. M. Rubin. 1992. Making a difference: The role of cell-cell interactions in establishing separate identities for equivalent cells. Cell 68: 271–281.

PubMed Link

Greenwald, I., P. W. Sternberg and H. R. Horvitz. 1983. The lin-12 locus specifies cell fates in Caenorhabditis elegansCell 34: 435–444.

PubMed Link

Grobstein, C. 1956. Trans-filter induction of tubules in mouse metanephrogenic mesenchyme. Expl. Cell Res. 10: 424–440.

Groner, B. and F. Gouilleux. 1995. Prolactin-mediated gene activation in mammary epithelial cells. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 5: 587–594.

PubMed Link

Grover, V. K., J. G. Valadez, A. B. Bowman and M. K. Cooper. 2011. Lipid modifications of Sonic hedgehog ligand dictate cellular reception and signal response. PLOS ONE 6: e21353.

PubMed Link

Grumolato, L., G. Liu, P. Mong, R. Mudbhart, R. Biswas, R. Arroyave, S. Vijayakumar, A. N. Economides and S. A. Aaronson. 2010. Canonical and noncanonical Wnts use a common mechanism to activate completely unrelated coreceptors. Genes Dev. 24: 2517–2530.

PubMed Link

Guerrero, I. and C. Chiang. 2007. A conserved mechanism of hedgehog gradient formation by lipid modification. Trends Cell Biol. 17: 1–5.

PubMed Link

Gurdon, J. B., P. Harger, A. Mitchell and P. Lemaire. 1994. Activin signalling and response to a morphogen gradient. Nature 371: 487–492.

PubMed Link

Habib, S. J., B. C. Chen, F. C. Tsai, K. Anastassiadis, T. Meyer, E. Betzig and R. Nusse. 2013. A localized Wnt signal orients asymmetric stem cell division in vitro. Science 339: 1445–1448.

PubMed Link

Hahn, H. and 20 others. 1996. Mutations of the human homolog of Drosophilapatched in the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Cell 85: 841–851.

PubMed Link

Hakamori, S., M. Fukuda, K. Sekiguchi and W. G. Carter. 1984. Fibronectin, laminin, and other extracellular glycoproteins. In K. A. Picz and A. H. Reddi (eds.), Extracellular Matrix Biochem-istry. Elsevier, New York, 229–276.

Hamburgh, M. 1970. Theories of Differentiation. Elsevier, New York.

Handschuh, K. and 21 others. 2014. ESCRT-II/Vps25 constrains digit number by endosome-mediated selective modulation of FGF-SHH signaling. Cell Rep. 9: 674–687.

PubMed Link

Hansen, C. G., T. Moroishi and K. L. Guan. 2015. YAP and TAZ: A nexus for Hippo signaling and beyond. Trends Cell Biol. 25: 499–513.

PubMed Link

Hardman, P., E. Landels, A. S. Woolf and B. S. Spooner. 1994. TGF-b1 inhibits growth and branching morphogenesis in embryonic mouse submandibular and sublingual glands in vitro. Dev. Growth Diff. 36: 567–577.

Harris, M. P., J. F. Fallon and R. O. Prum. 2002. Shh-Bmp2 signaling module and the evolutionary origin and diversification of feathers. J. Exp. Zool. 294: 160–176.

PubMed Link

Harrison, R. G. 1933. Some difficulties of the determination problem. Am. Nat. 67: 306–321.

Harvey, S. A. and J. C. Smith. 2009. Visualisation and quantification of morphogen gradient formation in the zebrafish. PLOS Biol. 7: e1000101.

PubMed Link

Hatta, K. and M. Takeichi. 1986. Expression of N-cadherin adhesion molecules associated with early morphogenetic events in chick development. Nature 320: 447–449.

PubMed Link

Heasman, J., R. D. Hynes, A. P. Swan, V. Thomas and C. C. Wylie. 1981. Primordial germ cells of Xenopus embryos: The role of fibronectin in their adhesion during migration. Cell 27: 437–447.

PubMed Link

Heldin, C.-H., K. Miyazono and P. ten Dijke. 1997. TGF-b signaling from cell membrane to nucleus through SMAD proteins. Nature 390: 465–471.

PubMed Link

Hill, R. J. and P. W. Sternberg. 1992. The gene lin-3 encodes an inductive signal for vulval development in C. elegansNature 358: 470–476.

PubMed Link

Hirsch, M. S., L. E. Lunsford, V. Trinkaus-Randall and K. K. H. Svoboda. 1997. Chondrocyte survival and differentiation in situ are integrin medicated. Dev. Dyn. 210: 249–263.

PubMed Link

Ho, H. Y., M. W. Susman, J. B. Bikoff, Y. K. Ryu, A. M. Jonas, L. Hu, R. Kuruvilla and M. E. Greenberg. 2012. Wnt5a-Ror-Dishevelled signaling constitutes a core developmental pathway that controls tissue morphogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109: 4044–4051.

PubMed Link

Hogan, B. 2002. Decisions, decisions! Nature 418: 282–283.

Hogan, B. L. M. 1996. Bone morphogenesis proteins: Multifunctional regulators of vertebrate development. Genes Dev. 10: 1580–1594.

PubMed Link

Holtzer, H. 1968. Induction of chondrogenesis: A concept in terms of mechanisms. In R. Gleischmajer and R. E. Billingham (eds.), Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 152–164.

Hong, E. and R. Brewster. 2006. N-cadherin is required for the polarized cell behaviors that drive neurulation in the zebrafish. Development 133: 3895–3905.

PubMed Link

Horwitz, A., K. Duggan, R. Greggs, C. Decker and C. Buck. 1986. The cell substrate attachment (CSAT) antigen has properties of a receptor for laminin and fibronectin. J. Cell Biol. 101: 2134–2144.

PubMed Link

Hsia, E. Y., Y. Gui and X. Zheng. 2015. Regulation of Hedgehog signaling by ubiquitination. Front. Biol. 10: 203–220.

PubMed Link

Huang, J., S. Wu, J. Barrera, K. Matthews and D. Pan. 2005. The Hippo signaling pathway coordinately regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis by inactivating Yorkie, the Drosophila homolog of YAP. Cell 122: 421–434.

PubMed Link

Huangfu, D., A. Liu, A. S. Rakeman, N. S. Murcia, L. Niswander and K. V. Anderson. 2003. Hedgehog signalling in the mouse requires intraflagellar transport proteins. Nature 426: 83–87.

PubMed Link

Hwang, H-Y, S. K. Olson, J. D. Esko and H. R. Horvitz. 2003. Caenorhabditis elegans early embryogenesis and vulval morphogenesis require chondroitin biosynthesis. Nature 423: 439–443.

PubMed Link

Ihle, J. N. 1996. STATs: Signal transducers and activators of transcription. Cell 84: 331–334.

PubMed Link

Ihle, J. N. 2001. The Stat family in cytokine signaling. Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13: 211–217.

PubMed Link

Ishitani, T., S. Kishida, J. Hyodo-Miura, N. Ueno, J. Yasuda, M. Waterman, H. Shibuya, R. T. Moon, J. Ninomiya-Tsuji and K. Matsumoto. 2003. The TAK1-NLK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade functions in the Wnt-5a/Ca2+ pathway to antagonize Wnt/b-catenin signaling. Mol. Cell Biol. 23: 131–139.

PubMed Link

Jacobson, A. G. 1963. The determination and positioning of the nose, lens, and ear III. Effects of reversing the anterior-posterior axis of the epidermis, neural plate, and neural fold. J. Exp. Zool. 154: 293–303. 

PubMed Link

Jacobson, A. G. 1966. Inductive processes in embryonic development. Science 152: 25–34. 

PubMed Link

Jiang, Z., J. Li and L.-J. Qu. 2018. Auxins. In Satish C Bhatla (ed.), Hormone Metabolism and Signaling in Plants. Elsevier, Cambridge, MA, 39−76.

Johnson, R. L. and M. P. Scott. 1998. New players and puzzles in the hedgehog signaling pathway. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 8: 450–456.

PubMed Link

Johnson, R. L. and 10 others. 1996. Human homolog of patched, a candidate gene for the basal cell nevus syndrome. Science 272: 1668–1671.

PubMed Link

Just, E. E. 1939. The Biology of the Cell Surface. Blakiston, Philadelphia, PA.

Justice, R.W., O. Zilian, D. F. Woods, M. Noll and P. J. Bryant. 1995. The Drosophila tumor suppressor gene warts encodes a homolog of human myotonic dystrophy kinase and is required for the control of cell shape and proliferation. Genes Dev. 9: 534–546.

PubMed Link

Kadokawa, Y., I. Fuketa, A. Nose, M. Takeichi and N. Nakatsuji. 1989. Expression of E- and P-cadherin in mouse embryos and uteri during the periimplantation period. Dev. Growth Diff. 31: 23–30.

Kadowaki, T., E. Wilder, J. Klingensmith, K. Zachary and N. Perrimon. 1996. The segment polarity gene porcupine encodes a putative multitransmembrane protein involved in Wingless processing. Genes Dev. 10: 3116–3128.

PubMed Link

Kakugawa, S. and 11 others. 2015. Notum deacylates Wnt proteins to suppress signalling activity. Nature 519: 187–192.

PubMed Link

Kalluri, R. and R. A. Weinberg. 2009. The basics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J. Clin. Invest. 119: 1420–1428.

PubMed Link

Kane, D. A., K. N. McFarland and R. M. Warga. 2005. Mutations in half baked/E-cadherin block cell behaviors that are necessary for teleost epiboly. Development 132: 1105–1116.

PubMed Link

Kanei, M., G. Horiguchi and H. Tsukaya. 2012. Stable establishment of cotyledon identity during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis by ANGUSTIFOLIA3 and HANABA TARANU. Development. 139: 2436−2446.

Katz, W. S. and P. W. Sternberg. 1996. Intercellular signalling in Caenorhabditis elegans vulval pattern formation. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 7: 175–183.

Katz, W. S., R. J. Hill, T. R. Clandenin and P. W. Sternberg. 1995. Different levels of the C. elegans growth factor LIN-3 promote distinct vulval precursor fates. Cell 82: 297–307.

PubMed Link

Keeler, R. F. and W. Binns. 1968. Teratogenic compounds of Veratrum californicum (Durand). V. Comparison of cyclopian effects of steroidal alkaloids from the plant and structurally related compounds from other sources. Teratology 1: 5–10.

PubMed Link

Kelley, R. L., E. Roessler, R. C. Hennekam, G. L. Feldman, K. Kosaki, M. C. Jones, J. C. Palumbos and M. Muenke. 1996. Holoprosencephaly in RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: Does abnormal cholesterol metabolism affect the function of Sonic hedgehog? Am. J. Med. Genet. 66: 478–484.

PubMed Link

Kimble, J. 1981. Alterations in cell lineage following laser ablation of cells in the somatic gonad of Caenorhabditis elegansDev. Biol. 87: 286–300.

PubMed Link

Kirn-Safran, C. B., R. R. Gomes, A. J. Brown and D. D. Carson. 2004. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans: Coordinators of multiple signaling pathways during chondrogenesis. Birth Def. Res. 72C: 69–88.

PubMed Link

Knudsen, K., A. F. Horwitz and C. Buck. 1985. A monoclonal antibody identifies a glycoprotein complex involved in cell-substratum adhesion. Exp. Cell Res. 157: 218–226.

PubMed Link

Kopan, R. 2002. Notch: A membrane-bound transcription factor. J. Cell Sci. 115: 1095–1097.

PubMed Link

Krens, S. F. and C.-P. Heisenberg. 2011. Cell sorting in development. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 95: 189–213.

PubMed Link

Lappi, D. A. 1995. Tumor targeting through fibroblast growth factor receptors. Semin. Cancer Biol. 6: 279–288.

PubMed Link

Lecourtois, M. and F. Schweisguth. 1998. Indirect evidence for Delta-dependent intercellular processing of Notch in Drosophila embryos. Curr. Biol. 8: 771–774.

PubMed Link

Leevers, S. J., H. F. Paterson and C. J. Marshall. 1994. Requirement for Ras in Raf activation is overcome by targeting Raf to the plasma membrane. Nature 369: 411–414.

PubMed Link

Legeai-Mallet, L., C. Benoist-Lasselin, A. Munnich and J. Bonaventure. 2004. Overexpression of FGFR3, Stat1, Stat5 and p21Cip1 correlates with phenotypic severity and defective chondrocyte differentiation in FGFR3-related chondrodysplasias. Bone 34: 26–36.

PubMed Link

Li, Y., H. Zhang, Y. Litingtung and C. Chiang. 2006. Cholesterol modification restricts the spread of Shh gradient in the limb bud. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 6548–6553.

PubMed Link

Lin, S., L. M. Baye, T. A. Westfall and D. C. Slusarski. 2010. Wnt5b-Ryk pathway provides directional signals to regulate gastrulation movement. J. Cell Biol. 190: 263–278.

PubMed Link

Linask, K. L. and J. W. Lash. 1988. A role for fibronectin in the migration of avian precardiac cells. I. Dose-dependent effects of fibronectin antibody. Dev. Biol. 129: 315–323.

PubMed Link

Liu, C., Z. Xu and N. H. Chua. 1993. Auxin polar transport is essential for the establishment of bilateral symmetry during early plant embryogenesis. Plant Cell. 5: 621−630.

Logan, C. and R. Nusse. 2004. The Wnt signaling pathway in development and disease. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 20: 781–810.

PubMed Link

Lu, T. Y., B. Lin, J. Kim, M. Sullivan, K. Tobita, G. Salama and L. Yang. 2013. Repopulation of decellularized mouse heart with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiovascular progenitor cells. Nat. Commun. 4: 2307.

PubMed Link

Lum, L. and P. A. Beachy. 2004. The hedgehog response network: Sensors, switches, and routers. Science 304: 1755–1759.

PubMed Link

Luna, E. J. and A. L. Hitt. 1992. Cytoskeleton-plasma membrane interactions. Science 258: 955–964.

PubMed Link

Luz, M., S. Spannl-Müller, G. Özhan, B. Kagermeier-Schenk, M. Rhinn, G. Weidinger and M. Brand.

2014. Dynamic association with donor cell filopodia and lipid-modification are essential features of Wnt8a during patterning of the zebrafish neuroectoderm. PLOS ONE 9: e84922.

PubMed Link

Lyu, J., V. Yamamoto and W. Lu. 2008. Cleavage of the Wnt receptor Ryk regulates neuronal differentiation during cortical neurogenesis. Dev. Cell 15: 773–780.

PubMed Link

MacDonald, B. T., K. Tamai and X. He. 2009. Wnt/b-catenin signaling: Components, mechanisms, and diseases. Dev. Cell 17: 9–26.

PubMed Link

Maddala, R., L. W. Reneker, B. Pendurthi and P. V. Rao. 2008. Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor-mediated disruption of Rho GTPase activity impairs lens fiber cell migration, elongation and survival. Dev. Biol. 315: 217–231.

PubMed Link

Martins-Green, M. and M. J. Bissell. 1995. Cell-ECM interactions in development. Semin. Dev. Biol. 6: 149–159.

McCormick, F. 1989. Ras GTPase activating protein: Signal transmitter and signal terminator. Cell 56: 5–8.

PubMed Link

McEwen, D. G. and M. Peifer. 2001. Wnt signaling: The naked truth? Curr. Biol.11:R524–R526.

PubMed Link

McMahon, A. P., P. W. Ingham and C. J. Tabin. 2003. Developmental roles and clinical significance of hedgehog signaling. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 53: 1–114. 

PubMed Link

Michino, K., K. Boras-Granic, P. Mill, C. C. Hui and P. A. Hamel. 2003. Shh expression is required for embryonic hair follicle but not mammary gland development. Dev. Biol. 264: 153–165.

PubMed Link

Milenkovic, L., M. P. Scott and R. Rohatgi. 2009. Lateral transport of Smoothened from the plasma membrane of the membrane of the cilium. J. Cell Biol. 187: 365–374.

PubMed Link

Mohammadi, M., S. K. Olsen and O. A. Ibrahimi. 2005. Structural basis for fibroblast growth factor receptor activation. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16: 107–137.

PubMed Link

Molina, M. D., N. de Crozé, E. Haillot and T. Lepage. 2013. Nodal: Master and commander of the dorsal-ventral and left-right axes in the sea urchin embryo. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 23: 445–453.

PubMed Link

Möller, B. and D. Weijers. 2009. Auxin control of embryo patterning. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 1: a001545.

Montgomery, A. M. P., R. A. Reisfeld and D. A. Cheresh. 1994. Integrin avb3 rescues melanoma cells from apoptosis in a three-dimensional dermal collagen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 8856–8860.

PubMed Link

Morris, A. R., J. Drawbridge and M. S. Steinberg. 2003. Axolotl pronephric duct migration requires an epidermally derived, laminin 1-containing extracellular matrix and the integrin receptor a6b1. Development 130: 5601–5608.

PubMed Link

Moscona, A. A. 1974. Surface specification of embryonic cells: Lectin receptors, cell recognition, and specific cell ligands. In A. Monroy (ed.), The Cell Surface in Development. Wiley, New York, 67–99.

Mukhopadhyay, S. and R. Rohatgi. 2014. G-protein-coupled receptors, Hedgehog signaling, and primary cilia. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 33: 63–72.

PubMed Link

Müller, P. and A. F. Schier. 2011. Extracellular movement of signaling molecules. Dev. Cell 21: 145–158.

PubMed Link

Mulligan, K. A., C. Fuerer, W. Ching, M. Fish, K. Willert and R. Nusse. 2012. Secreted Wingless-interacting molecule (Swim) promotes long-range signaling by maintaining Wingless solubility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109: 370–377.

PubMed Link

Muschler, J., A. Lochter, C. D. Roskelley, P. Yurchenco and M. J. Bissell. 1999. Division of labor among the a6β4 integrin, b1 integrins, and an E3 laminin receptor to signal morphogenesis and b-casein expression in mammary epithelial cells. Mol. Biol. Cell 10: 2817–2828.

PubMed Link

Nachury, M. V. 2014. How do cilia organize signalling cascades? Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 369B: 20130465.

PubMed Link

Nahmad, M. and A. D. Lander. 2011. Spatiotemporal mechanisms of morphogen gradient interpretation. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 21: 726–731.

PubMed Link

Nakayama, T. and 10 others. 2015. Xenopus Pax6 mutants affect eye development and other organ systems, and have phenotypic similarities to human aniridia patients. Dev. Biol. 408: 328–344.

PubMed Link

Newman, S. A. and R. Bhat. 2008. Dynamical patterning modules: Physico-genetic determinants of morphological development and evolution. Phys. Biol. 5: 015008.

PubMed Link

Niehrs, C. 2006. Function and biological roles of the Dickkopf family of Wnt modulators. Oncogene 25: 7469–7481.

Niehrs, C. 2012. The complex world of Wnt receptor signalling. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 13: 767–779.

PubMed Link

Nohno, T. W., Y. Kawakami, H. Ohuchi, A. Fujiwara, H. Yoshioka and S. Noji. 1995. Involvement of the sonic hedgehog gene in chick feather formation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 206: 33–39.

PubMed Link

Nose, A. and M. Takeichi. 1986. A novel cadherin adhesion molecule: Its expression patterns associated with implantation and organogenesis of mouse embryos. J. Cell Biol. 103: 2649–2658.

PubMed Link

Notenboom, R. G. E., P. A. J. de Poer, A. F. M. Moorman and W. H. Lamers. 1996. The establishment of the hepatic architecture is a prerequisite for the development of a lobular pattern of gene expression. Development 122: 321–332.

PubMed Link

Novaro, V., C. D. Roskelley and M. J. Bissell. 2003. Collagen-IV and laminin-1 regulate estrogen receptor a expression and function in mouse mammary epithelial cells J. Cell Sci. 116: 2975–2986.

PubMed Link

Nusse, R. 2012. Wnt signaling. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 4: a011163.

Link

Nusse, R. 2015. Cell signalling: Disarming Wnt. Nature 519: 163–164.

PubMed Link

Nusse, R. and H. Varmus. 2012. Three decades of Wnts: A personal perspective on how a scientific field developed. EMBO J. 31: 2670–2684.

PubMed Link

Nüsslein-Volhard, C. and E. Wieschaus. 1980. Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in DrosophilaNature 287: 795–801.

PubMed Link

Oberlender, S. A. and R. S. Tuan. 1994. Expression and functional involvement of N-cadherin in embryonic limb chondrogenesis. Development 120: 177–187.

PubMed Link

Ogino, H. and K. Yasuda. 1998. Induction of lens differentiation by activation of a bZIP transcription factor, l-maf. Science 280: 115–118.

PubMed Link

Ohkawara, B., S. Iemura, P. ten Dijke and N. Ueno. 2002. Action range of BMP is defined by its N-terminal basic amino acid core. Curr. Biol. 12: 205–209.

Ohkawara, B., A. Glinka and C. Niehrs. 2011. Rspo3 binds syndecan 4 and induces Wnt/PCP signaling via clathrin-mediated endocytosis to promote morphogenesis. Dev. Cell 20: 303–314.

PubMed Link

Opitz, J. M. and L. V. Furtado. 2012. The RSH/“Smith-Lemli-Opitz” syndrome: Historical footnote. Am. J. Med. Genet. 160C: 242–249.

PubMed Link

Ott, H. C., T. S. Matthiesen, S. K. Goh, L. D. Black, S. M. Kren, T. I. Netoff and D. A. Taylor.2008. Perfusion-decellularized matrix: Using nature’s platform to engineer a bioartificial heart. Nat. Med. 14: 213–221.

PubMed Link

Perrimon, N., L. Engstrom and A. P. Mahowald. 1989. Zygotic lethals with specific maternal effect phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. I. Loci on the X chromosome. Genetics 121: 333–352.

Poh, W. C., Y. Shen and T. Inoue. 2014. Function of the Ryk intracellular domain in C. elegans vulval development. Dev. Dyn. 243: 1074–1085.

PubMed Link

Quiring, R., U. Walldorf, U. Kloter and W. J. Gehring. 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the Small eye gene in mice and Aniridia in humans. Science 265: 785–789.

PubMed Link

Raible, F. and M. Brand. 2001. Tight transcriptional control of the ETS domain factors Erm and Pea3 by Fgf signaling during early zebrafish development. Mech. Dev. 107: 105–117.

PubMed Link

Riddle, R. D., R. L. Johnson, E. Laufer and C. Tabin. 1993. Sonic hedgehog mediates the polarizing activity of the ZPA. Cell 75: 1401–1416.

PubMed Link

Ritvos, O., T. Tuuri, M. Erämaa, K. Sainio, K. Hildén, L. Saxén and S. F. Gilbert. 1995. Activin disrupts epithelial branching morphogenesis in developing murine kidney, pancreas, and salivary gland. Mech. Dev. 50: 229–245.

PubMed Link

Robert, H. S., P. Grones, A. N. Stepanova, L. M. Robles, A. S. Lokerse, J. M. Alonso, D. Weijers and J. Friml. 2013. Local auxin sources orient the apical-basal axis in Arabidopsis embryos. Curr. Biol. 23: 2506−2512.

Robert, H. S., L. Crhak Khaitova, S. Mroue and E. Benková. 2015. The importance of localize dauxin production for morphogenesis of reproductive organs and embryos in Arabidopsis. J Exp. Bot. 66: 5029−5042.

Roessler, E., E. Belloni, K. Gaudenz, P. Jay, P. Berta, S. W. Scherer, L. C. Tsui and M. Muenke. 1996. Mutations in the human sonic hedgehog gene cause holoprosencephaly. Nat. Genet. 14: 357–360.

PubMed Link

Rogers, K. W. and A. F. Schier. 2011. Morphogen gradients: From generation to interpretation. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 27: 377–407.

PubMed Link

Roosjen, M., S. Paque, and D. Weijers. 2018. Auxin response factors: Output control in auxin biology. J. Exp. Bot. 69: 179−188.

Roskelley, C. D., P. Y. Desprez and M. J. Bissell. 1994. Extracellular matrix-dependent tissue-specific gene expression in mammary epithelial cells requires both physical and biochemical signal transduction. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 12378–12382.

PubMed Link

Rousseau, F., J. Bonaventure, L. Legeai-Mallet, A. Pelet, J. M. Rozet, P. Maroteaux, M. Le Merrer and A. Munnich. 1994. Mutations in the gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 in achondroplasia. Nature 371: 252–254.

PubMed Link

Roy, S. and T. B. Kornberg. 2015. Paracrine signaling mediated at cell-cell contacts. BioEssays 37: 25–33.

PubMed Link

Roy, S., F. Hsiung and T. B. Kornberg. 2011. Specificity of Drosophila cytonemes for distinct signaling pathways. Science 332: 354–358.

PubMed Link

Ruoslahti, E. and M. D. Pierschbacher. 1987. New perspectives in cell adhesion: RGD and integrins. Science 238: 491–497.

PubMed Link

Saha, M. S., C. L. Spann and R. M. Grainger. 1989. Embryonic lens induction: More than meets the optic vesicle. Cell Diff. Dev. 28: 153–172.

PubMed Link

Saito-Diaz, K., T. W. Chen, X. Wang, C. A. Thorne, H. A. Wallace, A. Page-McCaw and E Lee. 2013. The way Wnt works: Components and mechanism. Growth Factors 31: 1–31.

PubMed Link

Sanders, T. A., E. Llagostera and M. Barna. 2013. Specialized filopodia direct long-range transport of SHH during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nature 497: 628–632.

PubMed Link

Sano, K., H. Tanihara, R. L. Heimark, S. Obata, M. Davidson, T. St John, S. Taketani and S. Suzuki. 1993. Protocadherins: A family of cadherin-related molecules in central nervous system. EMBO J. 12: 2249–2256.

PubMed Link

Saunders, J. W., Jr. 1980. Developmental Biology. Macmillan, New York.

Saunders, J. W., Jr., J. M. Cairns and M. T. Gasseling. 1957. The role of the apical ectodermal ridge of ectoderm in the differentiation of the morphological structure of and inductive specificity of limb parts of the chick. J. Morphol. 101: 57–88.

Saxén, L., E. Lehtonen, M. Karkinen-Jääskeläinen, S. Nordling and J. Wartiovaara. 1976. Are morphogenetic tissue interactions mediated by transmissable signal substances or through cell contacts. Nature 259: 662–663.

PubMed Link

Schroeder, E. H., J. A. Kisslinger and R. Kopan. 1998. Notch-1 signalling requires ligand-induced proteolytic release of intracellular domain. Nature 393: 382–386.

PubMed Link

Schwank, G., S. Dalessi, S. F. Yang, R. Yagi, A. M. de Lachapelle, M. Affolter, S. Bergmann and K. Basler. 2011. Formation of the long range Dpp morphogen gradient. PLOS Biol. 9: e1001111.

PubMed Link

Sepich, D. S., M. Usmani, S. Pawlicki and L. Solnica-Krezel. 2011. Wnt/PCP signaling controls intracellular position of MTOCs during gastrulation convergence and extension movements. Development 138: 543–552.

PubMed Link

Seydoux, G. and I. Greenwald. 1989. Cell autonomy of lin-12 function in a cell fate decision in C. elegansCell 57: 1237–1246.

PubMed Link

Shi, Y. and J. Massagué. 2003. Mechanisms of TGF-b signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus. Cell 113: 685–700. 

PubMed Link

Shiang, R., L. M. Thompson, Y. Z. Zhu, D. M. Church, T. J. Fielder, M. Bocian, S. T. Winokur and J. J. Wasmuth.1994. Mutations in the transmembrane domain of FGFR3 cause the most common genetic form of dwarfism, achondroplasia. Cell 78: 335–342.

PubMed Link

Shih, C. and R. A. Weinberg. 1982. Isolation of a transforming sequence from a human bladder carcinoma cell line. Cell 29: 161–169.

PubMed Link

Shulman, J. M., N. Perrimon and J. D. Axelrod. 1998. Frizzled signaling and the developmental control of cell polarity. Trends Genet. 14: 452–458.

PubMed Link

Slavkin, H. C. and P. Bringas, Jr. 1976. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during odontogenesis. IV. Morphological evidence for direct heterotypic cell-cell contacts. Dev. Biol. 50: 428–442.

PubMed Link

Sleepman, J. P. and J. P. Theiry. 2011. Snapshot: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cell 145: 162.

PubMed Link

Sloan, T. F., M. A. Qasaimeh, D. Juncker, P. T. Yam and F. Charron. 2015. Integration of shallow gradients of Shh and Netrin-1 guides commissural axons. PLOS Biol. 13: e1002119.

PubMed Link

Smit, M. E. and D. Weijers. 2015. The role of auxin signaling in early embryo pattern formation. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 28: 99−105.

Solis, G. P., A. M. Lüchtenborg and V. L. Katanaev. 2013. Wnt secretion and gradient formation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 14: 5130–5145.

PubMed Link

Spemann, H. and O. Schotté. 1932. Über xenoplatische Transplantation als Mittel zur Analyse der embryonalen Induction. Naturwissenschaften 20: 463–467.

Stanganello, E., A. I. Hagemann, B. Mattes, C. Sinner, D. Meyen, S. Weber, A. Schug, E. Raz and S. Scholpp. 2015. Filopodia-based Wnt transport during vertebrate tissue patterning. Nat. Commun. 6: 5846.

PubMed Link

Steinberg, M. S. 1970. Does differential adhesion govern self-assembly processes in histogenesis? Equilibrium configurations and the emergence of a hierarchy among populations of embryonic cells. J. Exp. Zool. 173: 395–434.

PubMed Link

Steinberg, M. S. and M. Takeichi. 1994. Experimental specification of cell sorting, tissue spreading and specific spatial patterning by quantitative differences in cadherin expression. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 206–209.

PubMed Link

Stokoe, D., S. G. Macdonald, K. Cadwallader, M. Symons and J. F. Hancock. 1994. Activation of raf as a result of recruitment to the plasma membrane. Science 264: 1463–1467.

PubMed Link

Streuli, C. H., N. Bailey and M. J. Bissell. 1991. Control of mammary epithelial differentiation: Basement membrane induces tissue specific gene expression in the absence of cell-cell interactions and morphological polarity. J. Cell Biol.115: 1383–1396.

PubMed Link

Stricker, A. G., Y. Yamamoto and W. R. Jeffery. 2007. The lens controls cell survival in the retina: Evidence from the blind cavefish, Astyanax. Dev. Biol.311: 512–523.

PubMed Link

Struhl, G. and A. Adachi. 1998. Nuclear access and action of Notch in vivo. Cell 93: 382–386.

PubMed Link

Su, W.-C. S., M. Kitagawa, N. Xue, B. Xie, S. Garofalo, J. Cho, C. Deng, W. A. Horton and X. Y. Fu. 1997. Activation of Stat1 by mutant fibroblast growth factor receptor in thanatophoric dysplasia type II dwarfism. Nature 386: 288–292.

PubMed Link

Su, Y. H. 2014. Telling left from right: Left-right asymmetric controls in sea urchins. Genesis 52: 269–278.

PubMed Link

Taelman, V. F., R. Dobrowolski, J. L. Plouhinec, L. C. Fuentealba, P. P. Vorwald, I. Gumper, D. D. Sabatini and E. M. De Robertis. 2010. Wnt signaling requires sequestration of glycogen synthase kinase 3 inside multivesicular endosomes. Cell 143: 1136–1148.

PubMed Link

Takeichi, M. 1987. Cadherins: A molecular family essential for selective cell-cell adhesion and animal morphogenesis. Trends Genet. 3: 213–217.

Takeichi, M. 1991. Cadherin cell adhesion receptors as a morphogenetic regulator. Science 251: 1451–1455.

PubMed Link

Takeichi, M., H. S. Ozaka, K. Tokunaga and T. S. Okada. 1979. Experimental manipulation of cell surface to affect cellular recognition mechanisms. Dev. Biol.70: 195–205.

PubMed Link

Tamkun, J. W., D. W. DeSimone, D. Fonda, R. S. Patel, C. Buck, A. F. Horwitz and R. O. Hynes. 1986. Structure of integrin, a glycoprotein involved in transmembrane linkage between fibronectin and actin. Cell 46: 271–282.

PubMed Link

Tang, X., Y. Wu, T. Y. Belenkaya, Q. Huang, L. Ray, J. Qu and X. Lin. 2012. Roles of N-glycosylation and lipidation in Wg secretion and signaling. Dev. Biol. 364: 32–41.

PubMed Link

ten Hove, C. A., K. J. Lu and D. Weijers. 2015. Building a plant: Cell fate specification in the early Arabidopsis embryo. Development 142: 420−430.

Thimann, K. V. and J. B. Koep. 1935. Identity of the growth-promoting and root-forming substances of plants. Nature 135: 101.

Thrasivoulou, C., M. Millar and A. Ahmed. 2013. Activation of intracellular calcium by multiple Wnt ligands and translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus: A convergent model of Wnt/Ca2+ and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. J. Biol. Chem. 288: 35651–35659.

PubMed Link

Ting-Berreth, S. A. and C.-M. Chuong. 1996. Local delivery of TGFb2 can substitute for placode epithelium to induce mesenchymal condensation during skin morphogenesis. Dev. Biol. 179: 347–359.

PubMed Link

Topol, L., X. Jiang, H. Choi, L. Garrett-Beal, P. J. Carolan and Y. Yang. 2003. Wnt-5a inhibits the canonical Wnt pathway by promoting GSK-3-independent b-catenin degradation. J. Cell Biol. 162: 899–908.

PubMed Link

Townes, P. L. and J. Holtfreter. 1955. Directed movements and selective adhesion of embryonic amphibian cells. J. Exp. Zool. 128: 53–120.

van Amerongen, R. and R. Nusse. 2009. Towards an integrated view of Wnt signaling in development. Development 136: 3205–3214.

PubMed Link

van den Heuvel, M., C. Harryman-Samos, J. Klingensmith, N. Perrimon and R. Nusse. 1993. Mutations in the segment polarity genes wingless and porcupine impair secretion of the wingless protein. EMBO J. 12: 5293–5302.

PubMedLink

Vogel-Höpker, A., T. Momose, H. Rohrer, K. Yasua, L. Ishihara and D. H. Rappaport. 2000. Multiple functions of fibroblast growth factor-8 (FGF-8) in chick eye development. Mech. Dev. 94: 25–36.

PubMed Link

Waddington, C. H. 1940. Organisers and Genes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Walker, J. L., L. Zhang and A. S. Menko. 2002. A signaling role for the uncleaved form of alpha 6 integrin in differentiating lens fiber cells. Dev. Biol. 251: 195–205.

PubMed Link

Wallberg, A. E., K. Pedersen, U. Lendahl and R. G. Roeder. 2002. p300 and PCAF act cooperatively to mediate transcriptional activation from chromatin templates by notch intracellular domains in vitro. Mol. Cell. Biol. 22: 7812–7819.

PubMed Link

Wang, S., A. D. Sdrulla, G. diSibio, G. Bush, D. Nofziger, C. Hicks, G. Weinmaster and B. A. Barres.

1998. Notch receptor activation inhibits oligodendrocyte differentiation. Neuron 21: 63–76.

PubMed Link

Wang, Y., Z. Zhou, C. T. Walsh and A. P. McMahon. 2009. Selective translocation of intracellular Smoothened to the primary cilium in response to Hedgehog pathway modulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 2623–2628.

PubMed Link

Webster, M. K. and D. J. Donoghue. 1996. Constitutive activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 by the transmembrane domain point mutation found in achondroplasia. EMBO J. 15: 520–527.

PubMed Link

Weijers, D. and J. Friml. 2009. SnapShot: Auxin signaling and transport. Cell 136: 1172.

Weijers, D. and D. Wagner. 2016. Transcriptional responses to the auxin hormone. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 67: 539−574.

Westfall, T. A., R. Brimeyer, J. Twedt, J. Gladon, A. Olberding, M. Furutani-Seiki and D. C. Slusarski. 2003. Wnt-5/pipetail functions in vertebrate axis formation as a negative regulator of Wnt/b-catenin activity. J. Cell Biol. 162: 889–898.

PubMed Link

Wilkinson, H. A., K. Fitzgerald and I. Greenwald. 1994. Reciprocal changes in expression of the receptor lin-12 and its ligand lag-2 prior to commitment in aC. elegans cell fate decision. Cell 79: 1187–1198.

PubMed Link

Willardsen, M., D. A. Hutcheson, K. B. Moore and M. L. Vetter. 2014. The ETS transcription factor Etv1 mediates FGF signaling to initiate proneural gene expression during Xenopus laevis retinal development. Mech. Dev. 131: 57–67.

PubMed Link

Winter, C. G., B. Wang, A. Ballew, A. Royou, R. Karess, J. D. Axelrod and L. Luo. 2001. Drosophila Rho-associated kinase (Drok) links Frizzled-mediated planar cell polarity signaling to the actin cytoskeleton. Cell 105: 81–91.

PubMed Link

Witte, F., O. Bernatik, K. Kirchner, J. Masek, A. Mahl, P. Krejci, S. Mundlos, A. Schambony, V. Bryja and S. Stricker. 2010. Negative regulation of Wnt signaling mediated by CK1-phosphorylated Dishevelled via Ror2. FASEB J. 24: 2417–2426.

PubMed Link

Xu, T., W. Wang, S. Zhang, R. A. Stewart and W. Yu. 1995. Identifying tumor suppressors in genetic mosaics: The Drosophila lats gene encodes a putative protein kinase. Development 121: 1053–1063.

PubMed Link

Yam, P. T., S. D. Langlois, S. Morin and F. Charron. 2009. Sonic hedgehog guides axons through a noncanonical, Src-family-kinase-dependent signaling pathway. Neuron 62: 349–362.

PubMed Link

Yan, D. and X. Lin, 2009. Shaping morphogen gradients by proteoglycans. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 1: a002493.

PubMed Link

Yang, E. V., L. Wang and R. A. Tassava. 2005. Effects of exogenous FGF-1 treatment on regeneration of the lens and the neural retina in the newt, Notophthalmus viridescensJ. Exp. Zool. 303A: 837–844.

PubMed Link

Yao, E. and P. T. Chuang. 2015. Hedgehog signaling: From basic research to clinical applications. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. 114: 569–576.

PubMed Link

Yu, S. R., M. Burkhardt, M. Nowak, J. Ries, Z. Petrásek, S. Scholpp, P. Schwille and M. Brand. 2009. Fgf8 morphogen gradient forms by a source-sink mechanism with freely diffusing molecules. Nature 461: 533–536.

PubMed Link

Zygar, C. A., T. L. Cook, Jr. and R. M. Grainger. 1998. Gene activation during early stages of lens induction in XenopusDevelopment 125: 3509–3519.

PubMed Link