Neural Crest Cells and Axonal Specificity

THE NEURAL CREST

Regionalization of the Neural Crest

Neural Crest: Multipotent Stem Cells?

Specification of Neural Crest Cells

Neural Crest Cell Migration: Epithelial to Mesenchymal and Beyond

  • Delamination
  • The driving force of contact inhibition
  • Collective migration

Migration Pathways of Trunk Neural Crest Cells

  • The ventral pathway
  • The dorsolateral pathway

Cranial Neural Crest

The “Chase and Run” Model

  • An elaborate collaboration of pushes and pulls

Neural Crest-Derived Head Skeleton

Cardiac Neural Crest

ESTABLISHING AXONAL PATHWAYS IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

The Growth Cone: Driver and Engine of Axon Pathfinding

  • Rho, Rho, Rho your actin filaments down the signaling stream

Axon Guidance

The Intrinsic Navigational Programming of Motor Neurons

  • Cell adhesion: A mechanism to grab the road
  • Local and long-range guidance molecules: The street signs of the embryo
  • Repulsion patterns: Ephrins and semaphorins

How Did the Axon Cross the Road?

  • …Netrin
  • Slit and Robo

The Travels of Retinal Ganglion Axons

  • Growth of the retinal ganglion axon to the optic nerve
  • Growth of the retinal ganglion axon through the optic chiasm

Target Selection: “Are We There Yet?”

  • Chemotactic proteins
  • Target selection by retinal axons: “Seeing is believing”

Synapse Formation